Saturday, May 9, 2009

Drug-Endangered Children

Innocent children are sometimes found in homes and other environments (hotels, automobiles, apartments, etc.) where methamphetamine and other illegal substances are produced. Around the country, Drug Endangered Children (DEC) programs have been developed to coordinate the efforts of law enforcement, medical services, and child welfare workers to ensure that children found in these environments receive appropriate attention and care.


Children who live at or visit drug-production sites or are present during drug production face a variety of health and safety risks, including:


* inhalation, absorption, or ingestion of toxic chemicals, drugs, or contaminated foods that may result in nausea, chest pain, eye and tissue irritation, chemical burns, and death

* fires and explosions

* abuse and neglect

* hazardous lifestyle (presence of booby traps, firearms, code violations, poor ventilation)


Prevalence

For more information on methamphetamine, visit www.MethResources.gov


According to the El Paso Intelligence Center’s (EPIC) National Clandestine Laboratory Seizure System, there were 611 children affected by, injured or killed at methamphetamine labs during calendar year 2007. A child affected by labs includes children who were residing at the labs but may not have been present at the time of the lab seizure as well as children who were visiting the site.



Federal Response


On February 27, 2007, the Drug Endangered Children Act of 2007 (HR 1199) was introduced in the House of Representatives. If passed, the bill would provide for $20 million in DEC grants for fiscal years 2008 and 2009.


In October 2003, ONDCP announced a national DEC initiative to assist with coordination between existing state programs and create a standardized training program to extend DEC to states where such a program does not yet exist.


In 2003, the Department of Justice’s Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) awarded $2,124,000 to be used for DEC programs as part of the COPS Methamphetamine Initiative 2003. See a listing of grantees.


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Agencies Involved


A variety of agencies are called for response when drug laboratories are identified, including HAZMAT, law enforcement, and fire officials. When children are found at the laboratories, however, additional agencies and officials should be called in to assist, including emergency medical personnel, social services, and physicians.


Although coordination among child welfare services, law enforcement, medical services, and other agencies may vary across jurisdictions, interagency protocols developed to support drug-endangered children should generally address:


* staff training, including safety and cross training

* roles and responsibilities of agencies involved

* appropriate reporting, cross-reporting, and information sharing

* safety procedures for children, families, and responding personnel

* interviewing procedures

* evidence collection and preservation procedures

* medical care procedures


Actions of the responding agencies should include taking children into protective custody and arranging for child protective services, immediately testing the children for methamphetamine exposure, conducting medical and mental health assessments, and ensuring short- and long-term care.


Some agencies have developed protocols to use when responding to these situations:


Arizona Drug Endangered Children (DEC) Multidisciplinary/Integrated Protocol


Drug Endangered Children: Idaho’s Law Enforcement Protocols and Procedures (PDF)


“How to Care for Children Removed from a Drug Endangered Environment” (PDF)


Medical Protocols for Children Found at Methamphetamine Labs (PDF)


Pierce County (Washington) Drug Endangered Children Protocol (PDF)


Stevens County (Washington) Meth Site Child Response Protocol (PDF)


We Care: Recommended Best Practices Addressing the Needs of Drug Endangered Children (PDF)


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Legislation


A large number of states have introduced legislation to respond to and address the problems associated with children being found at locations where methamphetamine is either used or produced. See the National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws resource, State Child Endangerment Bill Status Update (PDF) for information about specific legislative bills on this issue that have been introduced as of August 3, 2006.


The following examples of enacted and proposed legislation change the way DEC cases are handled:


Arizona


A.R.S. 13-3623 (passed in 2000)—created liability when a person places a child in a location where a methamphetamine lab exists


A.R.S. 12-1000 (passed in 2003)—makes is unlawful to anyone other than the property owner/manager to enter a property where drugs were being manufactured until it is cleaned by a state-approved site remediation firm. This ensures that children will not be returned to a drug laboratory site until it is determined to be safe.


Georgia


HB 1131 (introduced January 2004)—will create an offense of endangering a child through the unlawful manufacture of methamphetamine, amphetamine, or a mixture containing either substance


Louisiana


Revised Statute 14:93.A (2) (amended in 2004)—identifies as an offense the intentional or criminally negligent exposure by anyone age 17 or older of any child under age 17 to a clandestine laboratory operation in a situation where it is foreseeable that the child may be physically harmed. Lack of knowledge of the child's age can not be used as a defense.


North Dakota


HB 1351 (passed in 2003)—makes it a felony to expose children or vulnerable adults to a controlled substance, precursor, or drug paraphernalia.


Washington


HB 2610 (passed in 2002)—establishes a felony for endangerment of a child by exposure to methamphetamine or its precursors.


RCW 26.44.200 (passed in 2002)—requires the investigating law enforcement officer to contact the Department of Social and Health Services immediately if a child is found at a meth lab


See MethResources: Policies and Legislation for additional legislation concerning drug endangered children.


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DEC Programs


Following are examples of DEC programs that have been developed throughout the United States


Arizona Drug Endangered Children Program


Colorado Drug Endangered Children, Inc.


Georgia Alliance for Drug Endangered Children


Iowa Drug Endangered Children


Kansas Alliance for Drug Endangered Children


Los Angeles Drug Endangered Children Response Team


National Alliance for Drug Endangered Children


Oregon Alliance for Drug Endangered Children


Riverside County Drug Endangered Children Program


Shasta County Drug Endangered Children Program


South Dakota Alliance for Drug Endangered Children


Tennessee Alliance for Drug Endangered Children


Texas Alliance for Drug Endangered Children


See MethResources: Programs for additional DEC programs.


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Related publications

Federal


Children at Clandestine Methamphetamine Labs: Helping Meth's Youngest Victims

Office for Victims of Crime, June 2003


Children at Risk

National Drug Intelligence Center, July 2002


Drug Labs and Endangered Children (PDF), FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Federal Bureau of Investigation, July 1999


Fact Sheet: Impact of Methamphetamine on Children

Office of National Drug Control Policy, August 2005


White House Drug Policy Office Launches National Initiative to Assist ‘Drug Endangered Children’

Office of National Drug Control Policy, October 6, 2003

State and Local


Arizona Alliance for Drug Endangered Children (DEC) Program Annual Report 2006 (PDF)

December 2006


Children in Methamphetamine Labs in Oregon (PDF)

Oregon Department of Human Services, August 2003


Georgia Alliance of Drug Endangered Children Strategic Plan 2006 (PDF)

December 2006


Survey of Policies and Procedures for Drug Endangered Children in Washington State (PDF)

Washington Governor's Council on Substance Abuse, September 2006

Other


Behind the Drug: The Child Victims of Meth Labs

American Prosecutors Research Institute, November 2002


Drug Endangered Children: A Prosecutor’s View (PDF)

National Crime Prevention Council


The Methamphetamine Menace (PDF)

National Conference of State Legislatures, January 2004


See MethResources: Publications and Research for additional publications concerning drug endangered children.


More methamphetamine publications


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DEC Conferences/Trainings

Upcoming


September 10, 2008

Kansas Alliance for Drug Endangered Children Conference

Wichita, Kansas


September 24-25, 2008

3rd Annual Wisconsin Drug Endangered Children Conference

Appleton, Wisconsin


October 6–8, 2008

National Drug Endangered Children 5th Annual Conference

Salt Lake City, Utah

Ongoing


Arizona Drug-Endangered Children Program Training and Technical Assistance


"Drugs and Society: The True Cost to You!" Drug Endangered Children (Webcast)


Drug Endangered Children Investigations Course


Drug Endangered Children: Training for Trainers


Kentucky's Drug Endangered Child Training Network


Salt Lake City Police Department Drug Endangered Children Training Class


See the Upcoming Conferences and Training and Technical Assistance sections of our MethResources Web site for additional events.


Do you have information about a DEC training/conference? If so, please e-mail ONDCP with information about the event.