Thursday, January 3, 2013

Introducing the Law -the Child protection System

http://www.rccasa.org/StudyManuals/02_CASA_ISE_Vol_1008.pdf

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                  national casa independent study manual

                Introducing the Law,

Chapter 2       the Child protection System

           2

                & the Courts

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Chapter 2

   2

Introducing the Law,

the Child protection

System & the Courts

ContentS

Chapter Overview  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .V2-2

UnIt 1 The Development of Child Abuse & Neglect Laws  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .V2-4

UnIt 2 Introducing CPS & the Court Process  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .V2-14

UnIt 3 The Roles in a Juvenile Court Case  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .V2-21

Looking Ahead .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .V2-27

Parking Lot   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .V2-31

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             Chapter 2

                  2

           Introducing

the Law, the Child

protection System

         & the Courts

                                  GettInG In G ear

   Chapter oVerVIeW              ResouRce MateRials exploRation

                                 Look at the Chapter 2 Web Resources or the Chapter 2 Resource Materials.

                                 Pick at least one website or article to explore, and share what you learn

                                 at the next debriefing session.

                                 Media RepoRts on child a buse

                                 Look and listen for media reports (newspaper stories, magazine articles,

                                 TV reports, and/or radio broadcasts) regarding child abuse today. Make

                                 notes about information that you find.

                                  GoaL

                                 In this chapter, I will increase my understanding of child abuse and

                                 neglect issues and the development of child advocacy laws. I will be

                                 introduced to the laws, the child protection system, and the court

                                 procedures that apply to my work as a CASA/GAL volunteer.

                                  objeCt IVeS

                                 By the end of this chapter, I will be able to . . .

                                 3 Describe how the history and development of child abuse and

                                     neglect laws affect policy and law today

                                 3 Identify applicable state, tribal, and local laws and understand how

                                     these laws guide the work of the CASA/GAL volunteer

                                 3 Explain how a child abuse or neglect case enters the child protection

                                     system

                                 3 Recognize the different hearings and what occurs at each point in

                                     the juvenile court process

                                 3 Identify the roles and perspectives of the various people in a child

                                     abuse or neglect court case

V2-2   |  Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

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                                                                                                                        2

                                                                                                                      CHAPTER

Chapter t IpS

Many of the legal terms used in this chapter appear in the Glossary at

the end of this manual. Please refer to the Glossary as you go through

this chapter, and familiarize yourself with the meanings of these terms.

SUppLeMentaL Mater Ia LS

handouts (provided by facilitator)

3 Names and dates of state, tribal, and local child abuse laws/

    regulations (for Activity 2B)

3 State child abuse and neglect statutes and mandatory reporting laws

    (for Activity 2C)

3 State and local child abuse/neglect case statistics (for Activity 2E)

audio  pResentations (access on www.casanet.org)

3 Mary Ellen’s story (for Activity 2A)

3 Child abuse report scenarios (for Activity 2E)

DebrIeFInG SeSSIon

As you work through this chapter, complete all the activities and answer

all the questions in the space provided. Be prepared to share your

responses at the debriefing session for this chapter.

parKInG Lot

At the end of this chapter you will find a page designated as the

Parking Lot. Find and bookmark this page now, and use it throughout

the chapter to note any questions, ideas, or concerns that you wish to

discuss with CASA/GAL program staff.

                                                        national CaSa Independent Study Manual             |  V2-3

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  2                   UnIt 1                        activity 2a: Mary ellen’s Story

CHAPTER

          the development                           Part 1: Listen to the online audio presentation of Mary Ellen’s

                                                    story, which describes one of the first documented cases of

           of child abuse &                         child abuse in the United States. If you do not have access to a

               neglect laws                         computer with a high-speed Internet connection, read the story

                                                    below.

                                                Mary Ellen’s Story

                                                Mary Ellen’s case took place in 1874. Her spirit remains with us because

                                                her case is generally regarded as the beginning of public concern for the

                                                plight of abused and neglected children.

                                                Mary Ellen was a child whose father was dead and whose mother could

                                                not care for her because she was destitute and had to work full-time.

                                                The New York Commission of Charities and Correction placed Mary

                                                Ellen with Mary McCormack Connolly and her husband, who were to

                                                care for her and report each year on her progress.

                                                Instead, Mrs. Connolly abused her. She beat Mary Ellen, locked her in a

                                                room, rarely allowed her outside, and did not provide adequate food or

                                                clothing.

                                                Upset by the child’s screaming, a neighbor told a mission worker about

                                                Mary Ellen. The mission worker could find no one to intervene; at the

                                                time, laws protecting children were not systematically enforced.

                                                The mission worker finally appealed to Henry Bergh, the founder and

                                                president of the ASPCA, the American Society for the Prevention of

                                                Cruelty to Animals. He took up Mary Ellen’s cause and was able to

                                                persuade a judge to hear her case.

                                                Mary Ellen was carried into the courtroom wrapped in a blanket. This is

                                                what the newspaper reported that she told the judge:

                                                    My father and mother are both dead. I don’t know how old I am. . . .

                                                    I call Mrs. Connolly mamma. I have never had but one pair of shoes, but

                                                    I cannot recollect when that was. . . . My bed at night has only been a

                                                    piece of carpet stretched on the floor underneath a window. . . . Mamma

                                                     has been in the habit of whipping and beating me almost every day.

                                                    She used to whip me with a twisted whip—a raw hide. . . . She struck

                                                     me with the scissors and cut me; I have no recollection of ever having

                                                     been kissed by any one—have never been kissed by mamma. . . .

                                                     Whenever mamma went out I was locked up in the bedroom. . . . I do

                                                     not want to go back to live with mamma because she beats me so.

                                                Mary Ellen was removed from the people who had mistreated her. Her

                                                case stirred public attention, and complaints began to pour in to Henry

                                                Bergh. So many cases of child beating and cruelty to children came to

                                                light that citizens called a community meeting and formed an association

                                                “for the defense of outraged childhood.” That association gave rise to

                                                the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, which was formally

                                                incorporated the year after Mary Ellen’s situation came to light.

         V2-4    |   Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

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Part 2: In the space provided, answer the following questions:                            leaRn MoRe!                     2

                                                                                    A more detailed account             CHAPTER

•     How    did    you    feel    as    you    read    Mary    Ellen’s    story

                                                                                    of Mary Ellen’s story

                                                                                    appears in the Chapter 2

______________________________________________________________                      Resource Materials .                 UNIT

                                                                                                                           1

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

                                                                                                                         UNIT

•     Why    do    you    think    Mary    Ellen’s    situation    happened                                                                          2

______________________________________________________________

                                                                                                                         UNIT

______________________________________________________________

                                                                                                                          3

______________________________________________________________

•     How    is    Mary    Ellen’s    story    different    from    the    ones    you    learned    

     about through the media accounts that you gathered for this

     chapter

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

•     How    is    it    similar

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

activity 2b: the Development of

Child abuse & neglect Laws

Part 1: Read the brief history of attitudes toward and treatment

of children, which appears on the following page.

                                                       national CaSa Independent Study Manual               |   V2-5

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  2                                            Historical Treatment of Children

CHAPTER                                        Historically, many cultures did not value children. There are exceptions

                                               to this, of course, and some cultures have respected and protected

                                               children throughout history.

UNIT

   1                                           Many practices that were once accepted or condoned would be

                                               considered abusive today, such as:

                                               •     Treating    children    as    “property”    with    no    rights

UNIT                                               “The justice of a master or father is different from that of a citizen;

  2                                                 for a son or a slave is property and there can be no injustice to one’s

                                                   property.” — Aristotle

                                               •     Harsh    physical    discipline

UNIT

                                                    “If one beats a child until it bleeds then it will remember; but if one

  3

                                                    beats it to death, the law applies.” — 13th-century saying

                                               •     Infanticide—the    willful    killing    of    a    child—particularly    of    weak    or    

                                                    “deformed” infants and of female children

                                               •     Dubious    child-rearing    practices,    such    as    swaddling    for    prolonged    

                                                    periods or early marriage of children

                                                    “We went the next day into the town and to the house of the

                                                    merchant and he said, ‘My daughter is 13 years old and no longer a

                                                    child and she is fit for marriage.’” — Pearl S. Buck, The Good Earth

                                               Some cultures honored and supported children by:

                                               •     Punishing    the    mistreatment    or    murder    of    children

                                                    The Code of Hammurabi (1780 B.C.E.)

                                               •     Opposing    physical    discipline

                                                    “A loving parent’s hands should be as soft as feathers and not cast

                                                    iron, and should not break bones.” — Ghana

                                                    “A whipped child loses courage and his soul withers and dwindles away

                                                    until he dies. For the soul of a child is a tender thing and easily hurt.”

                                                   — Havasupai

                                               Deeply embedded in the history of many industrialized societies,

                                               including the United States, were “antichild” practices such as:

                                               •     Indentured    servitude    and    child    slavery

                                               •     Orphan    trains

                                               •     Boarding    schools    for    Native    American    children

                                               •     Child    labor    in    mines    and    factories

         V2-6    |   Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

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    Part 2: Read the material below about the development of child                                                                2

    abuse and neglect laws. The facilitator will provide a handout                                                              CHAPTER

    about the development of state, tribal, and local laws. In the

    space below, record what stands out to you.

                                                                                                                                 UNIT

                                                                                                                                   1

    ______________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________

                                                                                                                                 UNIT

    ______________________________________________________________                                                                2

    ______________________________________________________________

                                                                                                                                 UNIT

                                                                                                                                  3

Child-focused policies are relatively new.

•     1899:    First    juvenile    court    (Chicago)    placed    dependent    and    delinquent    

     children in homes for wayward youth or reform schools

•     1910:    Development    of    X-ray    technology,    which    eventually    allowed    

     doctors to detect subdural (under the skin) injuries and untreated

     fractures

•     1938:    Fair    Labor    Standards    Act    imposed    restrictions    on    child    labor

•     1962:    Dr.    C.    Henry    Kempe    created    the    diagnosis    for    battered    child    

     syndrome

•     1965:    Mandatory    reporting    laws    in    place    in    all    states

Beginning    in    the    1970s,    the    United    States    Congress    became    aware    

(along with the rest of the nation) that the child welfare system was                            leaRn MoRe!

not adequately protecting children and their families. From a historical

                                                                                           Detailed summaries of

perspective, it can be said that we are still relatively new to the concepts

                                                                                           the federal laws that

of protecting abused and neglected children and developing appropriate

                                                                                           impact your work as a CASA/

systems, methods, and programs to cope with the problems these

children face.                                                                             GAL volunteer appear in the

                                                                                           Chapter 2 Resource Materials .

The chart on the next page outlines information about federal child

abuse and neglect laws.

                                                             national CaSa Independent Study Manual                 |  V2-7

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  2                                         Federal child abuse & neglect laws

CHAPTER

             1974: Child abuse prevention and treatment act (Capta), Public Law 93-247, amended in 1996

           Created the National Center on Child Abuse and                    For CASA/GAL volunteers:

UNIT

           Neglect and earmarked federal funds for states to                 •    Learn    whether    you,    as    a    CASA/GAL    volunteer,    are    

   1       establish special programs for child victims of abuse                a mandated reporter .

           or neglect .                                                      •    Learn    whether    the    guardian    ad    litem    has    to    be    

                                                                                an attorney in your state .

UNIT      This law requires that states:

  2        •    Have    child    abuse    and    neglect    reporting    laws

           •    Investigate    reports    of    abuse    and    neglect

           •    Educate    the    public    about    abuse    and    neglect

           •    Provide    a    guardian    ad    litem    to    every    abused    or    

UNIT         neglected child whose case results in a judicial

  3           proceeding

           •    Maintain    the    confidentiality    of    child    protective    

              services records

                                      1978: Indian Child Welfare act (ICWa), Public Law 95-608

           •    Recognizes    that    Indian    children    have    special                       For CASA/GAL volunteers:

              rights as members of sovereign nations within                  •    Ask    whether    every    child    has    Native    heritage.

              the United States                                              •    Investigate    tribal    resources    and    services    that    can    

           •    Responded    to    congressional    hearings    in    the    1970s                      be    of    great    benefit    to    the    child.

              that revealed a pattern of public and private                  •    Be    aware    that    jurisdiction    can    be    transferred    to    

              removal of Indian children from their homes,                      the tribal court .

              undermining their families and threatening tribal              •    Pay    attention    to    the    heritage    and    identity    needs    

              survival and Native American cultures                             of the child .

           •    Was    designed    to    implement    the    federal                              •    Remember    that    ASFA    timelines    (see    next    page)    

              government’s trust responsibility to the nations                  do not apply to Indian children .

              by protecting and preserving the bond between                  •    Keep    in    mind    that    ICWA    takes    precedence    over    

              Indian children and their tribe and culture                       other federal and state law .

           •    Sets    up    placement    preference    schemes    for    foster    

              care placements and adoptions of children who

              have been determined to be Indian children

           •    Establishes    the    right    of    certain    entities,    including    

              the tribe and the Indian custodian, if one exists,

              to appear as parties to child welfare cases

           •    Determines    when    and    if    a    case    should    be    

              transferred to tribal court

           •    Describes    rights    of    the    Indian    child    and    the    

              child’s tribe

          V2-8    |   Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

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                                Federal child abuse & neglect laws                                                                 2

                                                                                                                                 CHAPTER

                   1980: adoption assistance and Child Welfare act, Public Law 96-272

This law requires that states:                                  For CASA/GAL volunteers:

                                                                                                                                   UNIT

•    Recruit    culturally    diverse    foster    and    adoptive                   •    Consider    possible    placements    that    respect    the    

                                                                                                                                    1

   families                                                        child’s cultural heritage but do not limit his/her

•    Comply    with    the    Indian    Child    Welfare    Act                         options .

•    Establish    standards    for    foster    family    homes    and                  •    Learn    the    name    of    the    data    collection    system    

   review the standards periodically                               used in your state:                                             UNIT

•    Set    goals    and    a    plan    for    the    number    of    children                                                                                      2

   who will be in foster care for more than 24                     ___________________________________________

   months

•    Provide    “reasonable    efforts”    to    prevent    or                       •    Learn    how    to    access    this    information:

   eliminate the need for removal of the child from                                                                                UNIT

   his/her home or to make it possible for the child               ___________________________________________                      3

   to return to his/her home

•    Have    a    data    collection    and    reporting    system                         ___________________________________________

   about the children in care

                    1990: Indian Child protection and Family Violence prevention act

             •    Establishes    federal    requirements    for    the    reporting    and    investigation    of    child    abuse    and    

                neglect on tribal lands

             •    Requires    background    checks    on    individuals    who    have    contact    with    Indian    children    

                (including    foster    and    adoptive    families)

             •    Authorizes    funding    for    tribal    child    abuse    prevention    and    treatment    programs

                                      1993: Court Improvement Legislation

                                         Encourages reform in the court system

                                    1994: Multi-ethnic placement act (Mepa)

             The goals of this law are to:

             •    Decrease    the    time    children    wait    to    be    adopted

             •    Prevent    discrimination    on    the    basis    of    race,    color,    or    national    origin    in    the    

                placement of children and in the selection of foster and adoptive placements

             •    Facilitate    the    development    of    a    diverse    pool    of    foster    and    adoptive    families

                  1996: Child abuse prevention and treatment act (Capta) amended

                  Amended to include Court Appointed Special Advocates as guardians ad litem

                      1997: adoption and Safe Families act (aSFa), Public Law 105-89

This act embodies three key principles:                         The act directs timelines within which the child

•    The    safety    of    children    is    the    paramount    concern.              welfare system operates:

•    Foster    care    is    a    temporary    setting    and    not    a    place     •    Requires    permanency    plan    within    12    months

   for children to grow up .                                    •    Requires    dispositional    hearing    within    12    months    

•    Permanency    planning    should    begin    as    soon    as                         of placement

   the child enters foster care .                               •    Requires    court    reviews    every    six    months

                                          1997: Volunteer protection act

                                               Limits liability of volunteers

                                       1999: Foster Care Independence act

            Addresses needs of older youth in foster care, particularly those aging out of the system

                                                             national CaSa Independent Study Manual                  |   V2-9

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  2                 leaRn MoRe!                  t he indian child WelFa Re act

CHAPTER         To    find    out    more    about    

                                                 It is critical to understand that ICWA applies different standards

                   how tribes and states

                                                 to cases involving Indian children. It is always in the best interest

                interact on child welfare

UNIT                                            of an Indian child to have ICWA followed. Therefore, you should

                 cases,    see    “Tribal-State    

   1      Relations: Promising Practices         always ask if the child you are working with has Native heritage,

                                                 even if the child does not “look Indian.” By identifying Indian

                in    Child    Welfare”    in    the    

                                                 children and monitoring ICWA compliance, you can help ensure

         Chapter 2 Resource Materials .

                                                 that the Indian child’s cultural and familial needs will be fully

UNIT                                            considered by the court.

  2

                                                 ICWA resources:

                                                 3 The CASAnet website, www.casanet.org. An ICWA section

                                                     provides articles and more in-depth information.

UNIT

  3                                              3 National Indian Child Welfare Association, www.nicwa.org.

                                                     Several excellent packets of ICWA information are available for

                                                     a small charge.

                                                 3 National CASA staff, staff@nationalcasa.org. National CASA

                                                     program specialists can answer questions and provide

                                                     information regarding ICWA.

                                                 otheR laWs that aFFect casa/Gal VolunteeR WoRk

                                                 In your work as a CASA/GAL volunteer, you will encounter other

                                                 federal laws that have an impact on child abuse and neglect cases.

                                                 Following are a few of them:

                                                 The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996

                                                 (HIPAA) requires, among other things, permission or a court order

                                                 to access “protected health information” for any individual. Your

                                                 program will have information on how to access health records.

                                                 Special Immigrant Juvenile Status (SIJS) assists some children,

                                                 including those in foster care, in obtaining legal permanent

                                                 residency.

                                                 Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act says that any entity that

                                                 receives federal funds must provide a professional interpreter in court.

                                                 Titles IV-B and IV-E of the Social Security Act: IV-E is the primary

                                                 federal funding stream that partially reimburses states for foster

                                                 care for qualified children. IV-B allots funding for targeted case

                    leaRn MoRe!                  management services. The state must pay all expenses for a

                To    find    out    more    about              child who is not IV-E eligible out of state general revenues. These

                laws related to a child’s        expenses include foster care, therapy, etc.

                   education needs, see          The Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 (VOCAA) protects the

             National CASA’s E-Learning          privacy rights of child victims or witnesses during the investigation

           series,    “Education    and    Youth             or prosecution of a federal crime.

                 in    Out-of-Home    Care.”

         V2-10    |   Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

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    activity 2C: Your State Child abuse &                                                                                          2

    neglect Laws                                                                                                                  CHAPTER

    Part 1: Read the information that follows about the legal

    requirements for state definitions of child abuse and neglect.                                                                 UNIT

                                                                                                                                     1

Each state provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect. There

are three places in state statutes where child abuse and neglect are                                                               UNIT

defined:                                                                                                                            2

•     Child    abuse    reporting    laws    for    the    identification    of    cases    that    

     warrant reporting

                                                                                                                                   UNIT

•     Criminal    codes    for    defining    unlawful    behavior

                                                                                                                                    3

•     Statutes    for    governing    the    juvenile    court    for    determination    of    abuse    

     and neglect

In order for states to receive a federal grant for funding under the

Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), they must utilize

definitions of child abuse and neglect that include, at a minimum,

certain specifications. State laws are largely based on the requirements

of federal legislation, such as CAPTA. Each state legislature must make

its own decisions about how to meet the requirements of federal laws

and the needs of the state.

According to definitions of child abuse and neglect on the Child Welfare

Information Gateway website:

     Under CAPTA, child abuse and neglect means, at a minimum: “Any                               leaRn MoRe!

     recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker that

                                                                                            To    find    out    more    about    

     results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or

                                                                                            your state’s laws, go to the

     exploitation; or an act or failure to act that presents an imminent risk of

                                                                                            Child    Welfare    Information    

     serious harm.”

                                                                                            Gateway State Statutes search

     CAPTA defines sexual abuse as “The employment, use, persuasion,                        website, www.childwelfare.

     inducement, enticement, or coercion of any child to engage in, or assist               gov/systemwide/laws_policies/

     any other person to engage in, any sexually explicit conduct or simulation             search/index.cfm, where you

     of such conduct for the purpose of producing a visual depiction of                     can search by state for statutes

     such conduct; or the rape, and in cases of caretaker or interfamilial                  related to abuse and neglect,

     relationships, statutory rape, molestation, prostitution, or other form of             permanency planning, foster

     sexual exploitation of children, or incest with children.”                             care, and adoption .

                                                            national CaSa Independent Study Manual                  |   V2-11

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  2                                                Part 2: The facilitator will provide a handout containing your

CHAPTER                                            state’s child abuse and neglect definitions (first introduced in

                                                   Chapter 1) and mandatory reporting statutes. In the space below,

                                                   answer the following questions:

UNIT

   1                                               How do your state definitions comply with the CAPTA

                                                   requirements     How    do    they    go    beyond    CAPTA    requirements

                                                   ______________________________________________________________

UNIT

                                                   ______________________________________________________________

  2

                                                   ______________________________________________________________

UNIT

  3                                                ______________________________________________________________

                                                   In the Parking Lot, record any questions you have about state

                                                   laws.

                                                   activity 2D: principles & Values

                                                   that Guide the Law

                                                   Part 1: Read the following information about the principles that

                                                   guide child abuse and neglect laws and regulations.

                                               Principles That Guide Child Abuse

                                               & Neglect Laws & Regulations

                                               •     Federal    laws    and    regulations    shape    delivery    though    policies    and    

                                                    dollars.

                                               •     States    are    responsible    for    the    child    protection    function.

                                               •     Current    federal    regulations    establish    the    policies    for    states    when    

                                                    responding to child abuse and neglect:

                                                    º   Children are first, and foremost, protected from abuse and neglect.

                                                    º   Children are safely maintained in their homes whenever

                                                        possible and appropriate.

                                                    º   Children have permanency and stability in their living situations.

                                                    º   The continuity of family relationships and connections is

                                                        preserved for children.

                                                    º   Families have enhanced capacity to provide for their children’s needs.

                                                    º   Children receive appropriate services to meet their educational needs.

                                                    º   Children receive appropriate services to meet their physical and

                                                        mental health needs.

                                                   From    the    United    States    Department    of    Health    and    Human    Services,    Administration    for    

                                                Children    and    Families,    Administration    on    Children,    Youth    and    Families,    Children’s    Bureau.

         V2-12     |  Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

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    Part 2:    Our    values    as    individuals    and    as    a    society    affect    our                                                               2

    response to children at risk. In crafting laws, legislators try to strike                                              CHAPTER

    a balance between competing values. You will consider these same

    values as you advocate for children.

                                                                                                                            UNIT

    On    the    following    page    is    a    series    of    continuums    representing                                                                 1

    some    of    these    competing    values.    Put    an    X    on    the    spot    along    

    each continuum that indicates which value is more important to

    you    and    how    strongly    you    feel    about    it.    On    the    lines    below    each    

    continuum,    explain    why    you    placed    the    X    where    you    did.                                                                     UNIT

                                                                                                                             2

Needs of child                                                  Rights of parents

                                                                                                                            UNIT

                                                                                                                             3

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

State intervention                                               Privacy of family

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Immediate safety                                     Consequences of separation

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Punishment of abuser                                        Keeping family intact

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

    Part 3: Be prepared to discuss the following questions at the

    debriefing session for this chapter:

    •     How    do    you    think    your    values    will    shape    your    advocacy     How    

        might    your    advocacy    influence    the    values    you    currently    hold

                                                         national CaSa Independent Study Manual               |  V2-13

----------------------- Page 16-----------------------

  2                  UnIt 2                       activity 2e: how a Case enters the System

CHAPTER

           introducing cps                        Part 1: Listen to the online audio presentation of the four child

                                                  abuse report scenarios. If you do not have access to a computer

               & the court                        with a high-speed Internet connection, read the scenarios below.

                   process

                                              scenaRio 1

                                              Mrs. Delma Barnes lives next door to Sharon Frazier and her daughter

                                              Taysia, who is 7. Mrs. Barnes called the child protection agency hotline

                                              to report that she observed Taysia being spanked with a hand by her

                                              mom. When asked, Mrs. Barnes told the caseworker that it wasn’t an

                                              “extra-hard spanking,” but that she just did not believe in spanking

                                              children at all. Mrs. Barnes said she saw Taysia afterward, and there

                                              were no bruises or marks from the spanking. Mrs. Barnes talked with

                                              Taysia, who told her she didn’t like being spanked. The case was

                                              screened out by the intake worker, so there was no investigation.

                                              scenaRio 2

                                              Joey,    age    3,    attends    daycare,    where    a    staff    member    noticed    a    mark    on    

                                              his leg that looked suspicious. The daycare worker, being concerned,

                                              called the child protection agency hotline to report the bruise. After

                                              talking with the child and his parents, as well as several neighbors, the

                                              investigating caseworker found that the bruise occurred while Joey was

                                              playing. All accounts of the situation were the same and were found

                                              believable. There was no evidence to support that Joey was abused or

                                              neglected; therefore, the case was not substantiated and was closed.

                                              scenaRio 3

                                              First-grade teacher Susan Williams called the child protection agency

                                              hotline to report a concern about two of her students, Dot and Stan

                                              Grant,    6-year-old    twins.    They    live    with    their    mother,    Arlene,    and    her    

                                              boyfriend, Tom. Ms. Williams is concerned that the twins are in the

                                              middle of fights between Arlene and Tom. There were bruises on Dot’s

                                              face, which she said happened when Tom accidentally hit her when he

                                              was trying to hit her mom.

                                              A caseworker talked with the children separately at school and both

                                              children said that their mom and her boyfriend drank beer and

                                              smoked “little white cigarettes that they put green stuff in.” They also

                                              reported that the cigarettes “smelled funny.” Both children told the

                                              caseworker that their mom and Tom fight and that he hits their mom.

                                              Both children have observed these fights, and from their descriptions it

                                              seems the fights occur quite often, especially when Arlene and Tom are

                                              partying. Both Dot and Stan said they were afraid of Tom.

                                              When interviewed by the caseworker, Arlene admitted that Tom drank

                                              beer but said he didn’t do drugs anymore. She denied that she drank

                                              or did drugs herself. She told the caseworker that sometimes they

                                              fought,    “but    who    doesn’t?”    She    said    that    Tom    didn’t    hurt    her    and    had    

                                              never hit her. She was surprised that the caseworker could have gotten

         V2-14    |   Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

----------------------- Page 17-----------------------

information that was so wrong. She didn’t want the caseworker to talk                                                            2

with Tom. When the caseworker explained that interviewing Tom was

necessary, Arlene had a nervous expression on her face.                                                                        CHAPTER

Tom was visibly displeased when the caseworker arrived to talk with

him. He told her that it was none of her business what he did in his                                                            UNIT

home. He said he was good to Arlene’s children and bought them what                                                               1

they needed. Even though he and Arlene did fight sometimes, he said,

he would never hit her. Tom denied using drugs but told the caseworker

that he would drink a beer whenever he wanted.

                                                                                                                                UNIT

Further interviews were conducted with the teacher, the maternal                                                                 2

grandmother, a neighbor, and a friend of the mother. All but the friend

were concerned about these children and told the caseworker that the

twins were often in the middle of fights and there was “partying” going

on at the home all the time.                                                                                                    UNIT

                                                                                                                                 3

Due to the children’s disclosures, observations from interviews with their

mom and her boyfriend, and information from the collateral contacts,

neglect was substantiated. The case will go to Family Support for

treatment. Court intervention will not be sought at this time.

           First    three    situations    drafted    by    Angie    Pittman,    Family    Permanency    Supervisor,    

                                               DSS,    Buncombe    County,    North    Carolina.

scenaRio 4

Dr. Valerie Alajuwon called the child protection agency hotline and

stated    she    had    examined    and    admitted    15-month-old    Alexa    James,    who    

was brought in by her mother, Sheila Washington, and Sheila’s live-in

boyfriend, Lewis Murphy. Alexa could not bear weight on her right leg.

X-ray    results    showed    a    fracture    of    her    right    tibia    (lower    leg)    and    a    one-    

to two-week-old fracture of her right femur (upper leg).

When interviewed by the caseworker, neither Ms. Washington nor Mr.

Murphy could explain Alexa’s injuries. They claimed to be the child’s

only caretakers. The caseworker requested that Dr. Alajuwon do a

complete    physical    examination    of    Alexa,    including    a    series    of    X-rays.    

The    X-rays    revealed    a    healing    rib    fracture    in    addition    to    the    two    leg    

fractures. Since the three fractures were in various stages of healing, Dr.

Alajuwon diagnosed Alexa as a victim of battered child syndrome.

At the time of Alexa’s discharge from the hospital, there was no new

information as to the cause of her injuries. The various ages, type,

severity, and location of the injuries without explanations about their

occurrence indicated the injuries were nonaccidental. Therefore, to

ensure the child’s care, supervision, and protection, a petition was filed

and Alexa was placed in foster care. When the petition was filed, Penny

Ferguson, a CASA/GAL volunteer, and Webster Lance, attorney for the

child, were assigned to Alexa’s case.

               From    the    North    Carolina    Guardian    ad    Litem    volunteer    training    curriculum.

                                                           national CaSa Independent Study Manual                |   V2-15

----------------------- Page 18-----------------------

  2                                                Part 2: Read the following information about the four stages

CHAPTER                                            cases go through to enter the child protection system. Answer

                                                   the questions for each stage. When you finish the activity, check

                                                   your    answers    against    those    in    the    Answer    Key    at    the    end    of    this    

UNIT                                              manual. Write down any questions you have in the Parking Lot.

   1

                                               staGe 1: Repo RtinG suspected a buse oR neGlect

UNIT                                          •     Someone    in    the    community    reports    to    the    child    protection    agency    or,    

  2                                                 in some areas, to law enforcement that they suspect a child is being

                                                    abused or neglected.

                                               Question: Who reported suspected abuse in the four scenarios you read?

UNIT

                                               Scenario 1 reporter:    _________________________________________________

  3

                                               Scenario 2 reporter:    _________________________________________________

                                               Scenario    3    reporter:     _________________________________________________

                                               Scenario 4 reporter:    _________________________________________________

                                               staGe 2:  scReeninG Repo Rts o F suspected a buse

                                               oR neGlect

                                               •     The    child    protection    agency    or,    in    some    areas,    law    enforcement    

                                                    investigates and intervenes in all circumstances where the

                                                    allegations, if proven, would fit the legal definition of abuse or

                                                    neglect. An investigator will respond within a specific time frame

                                                    determined by the nature of the allegations.

                                               •     In    circumstances    where    the    allegations    would    not    fit    the    legal    

                                                    definition of abuse or neglect, the reporter is notified that there

                                                   will be no investigation. The reporter may be referred to outreach

                                                    services or other agencies as appropriate.

                                               Question: In which scenario was the report screened out before the

                                               investigation stage? Why?

                                               Report screened out: _________________________________________________

                                               Reason: _____________________________________________________________

                                               staGe 3:  inV estiGatinG Repo Rts o F suspected a buse

                                               oR neGlect

                                               •     The    child    protection    agency    or,    in    some    areas,    law    enforcement    

                                                    investigates the report to determine the facts, the extent of the abuse

                                                    or neglect, and the risk of harm to the child.

                                               •     If    the    investigation    does    not    confirm    abuse    or    neglect,    the    case    is    

                                                    closed.

                                               Question: In which scenario was the case closed after investigation? Why?

                                               Case closed:    ________________________________________________________

                                               Reason: _____________________________________________________________

         V2-16    |   Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

----------------------- Page 19-----------------------

staGe 4:  inteRVeninG in  conFiRMed cases o F a buse                                                                               2

oR neGlect

                                                                                                                                  CHAPTER

•     If    the    investigation    confirms    abuse    or    neglect,    the    child    protection    

     agency then determines whether protective services should be

     provided or if a petition needs to be filed. Petitions are filed when                                                         UNIT

     the agency needs the court to intervene on the child’s behalf to                                                                1

     minimize the risk that child maltreatment will recur, or when the

     child is removed from the home to ensure his/her safety.

Question: In which scenario was a petition filed? Why?                                                                             UNIT

Petition filed:   _______________________________________________________                                                           2

Reason: _____________________________________________________________

                                                                                                                                   UNIT

    Part 3: Look at the following national statistics about the                                                                     3

    number of cases in the child protection system and the numbers

    of cases screened out at various stages of this process. Also

    read the handout with state and local statistics provided by the

    facilitator.

    Record your observations below.

    ______________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________

                                                                                    screened out          37.3%

Cases in the System

                                                                                        screened                      62.7%

In    2004,    an    estimated    total    of    3    million    referrals,    involving                               in to be

approximately    5.5    million    children,    were    made    to    CPS    agencies                           investigated

across the country.

                                                                                   received other

                                                                                          finding                10 .6%

Of    the    cases    that    were    investigated,    more    than    one-quarter    

were substantiated.                                                                 substantiated        28 .7%

                                                                                     or indicated

                                                                                                              60 .7%

                                                                                                         unsubstantiated

An    estimated    268,000    children    were    removed    from    their    homes    as    a    

result  of child maltreatment investigations.

                                                                                                                  19%

                                                                                        removed

                                                                                      from home

                                                                                                               81%

                 From    Child Maltreatment 2004,    Administration    for    Children    and    Families,                   remaining in home

                 Children’s    Bureau,    www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm04/index.htm.

                                                            national CaSa Independent Study Manual                  |  V2-17

----------------------- Page 20-----------------------

  2                                                 activity 2F: the juvenile Court process

CHAPTER

                                                    Read the following overview of the juvenile court process. The

                                                    flowchart entitled “A Child’s Journey Through the Child Welfare

UNIT                                               System” gives a general synopsis of how cases progress through

   1                                                the court system. The facilitator will share information specific

                                                    to your local jurisdiction at the debriefing session, and Chapters

                                                    8    and    9    will    cover    the    court    process    in    more    detail.    Write    any    

                                                    questions you have about the process in the Parking Lot.

UNIT

  2

                                                The Juvenile Court Process

UNIT                                           Court    is    a    series    of    steps,    a    series    of    hearings—each    building    on    what    

  3                                             has occurred before.

                                                For a typical child abuse case, the steps are as follows:

                                                3 When a case meets the definitions of child abuse or neglect set out

                                                    in the law, the allegations of abuse or neglect will be listed in a

                                                    formal document and filed in court.

                                                3 At the first hearing the judge will make a series of decisions:

                                                    •     Whether    the    allegations    are    serious    and    appear    to    meet    the    

                                                         definitions in the law

                                                    •     Whether    it    is    safe    for    the    child    to    live    with    the    parent    while    the    

                                                         matter is being resolved

                                                    •     If    the    child    won’t    be    living    with    the    parent,    whether    visits    will    be    

                                                         allowed

                                                    •     When    the    next    hearings    will    take    place

                                                    •     In    some    states,    whether    the    case    will    be    referred    for    mediation

                                                3 Parents will be given a chance to answer the allegations.

                                                    •     If    they    admit    the    allegations,    the    judge    will    make    official    

                                                         findings about what has happened to the child. The judge will

                                                         order the parents to do things that will correct the problems

                                                         that brought the family to court, such as counseling, parenting

                                                         classes, or chemical dependency evaluation and treatment.

                                                3 The parents can deny the allegations and then the case will go to

                                                    trial.

                                                    •     Attorneys    will    enter    documents    into    evidence.

                                                    •     Witnesses    will    testify    about    what    they    have    seen    or    heard.

                                                    •     The    judge    will    consider    all    the    evidence    and    make    a    decision    

                                                         about whether the allegations have been proven. If not proven,

                                                         the case will be dismissed. If proven, the judge will order the

                                                         parents to do things that will correct the problems that brought

                                                         the family to court.

         V2-18     |  Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

----------------------- Page 21-----------------------

3     Once    the    judge    orders    the    case    plan    (treatment    plan),    CPS    and    the                                                                 2

     CASA/GAL volunteer will monitor the situation and there will be

                                                                                                                                CHAPTER

     review court hearings to see how things are going.

3 If the problems are corrected and it is safe for the child, the

     child will be returned to live with the parent and the case will be                                                         UNIT

     dismissed from court jurisdiction.                                                                                            1

3     If    the    problems    continue—usually    because    the    parents    cannot    or    

     will    not    follow    through    with    the    requirements    of    the    case    plan—the    

     court will have to look to other options to keep the child safe, such                                                       UNIT

     as placing the child permanently with a relative or placing the child                                                        2

     for adoption by a new family.

   ciV il cases Vs. cRiMinal cases                                                                                               UNIT

   Civil actions are brought to court by individuals or the government                                                            3

   to    seek    various    remedies—for    instance,    damages    for    injuries    or    

   enforcement of contracts. If the defendant is found liable, the court

   can order him/her to pay compensation, take certain steps, or stop

   certain conduct. The court cannot send a defendant in a civil case to

   prison, except for contempt of court. The legal standard of proof is

   “preponderance    of    the    evidence”—meaning    that    the    allegations    are    

   more likely than not to have occurred.

   Child protection cases are civil matters.

   In criminal cases, the government brings an action against an

   individual alleging that a crime has been committed. If the defendant

   is found guilty, the court can order fines, restitution, probation,

   participation in treatment programs, incarceration (prison), or in some

   states, the death penalty. Given the severity of potential consequences,

   the legal standard of proof is higher than in civil cases. Allegations in

   criminal cases must be proven “beyond a reasonable doubt.”

  A parent might also be charged criminally for hurting a

   child—for example, for sexually assaulting the child. This

   court process would be separate from the child welfare case.

                                                           national CaSa Independent Study Manual                 |   V2-19

----------------------- Page 22-----------------------

  2                              a child’s Journey through the child Welfare system

CHAPTER

                                    Abuse or neglect is reported

                                    and the agency investigates

UNIT                                                                                            Substantiated

   1

             Unfounded: Case is closed

                                                                                          Agency sends child home

                                                        Agency recommends                                                      Agency sends child home

                                                                                         with supervision or support

                                                         removal from home                                                          without services

                                                                                                    services

UNIT

   2

                                                        Preliminary protective

                                                     hearing: Court determines

                                                           initial placement

UNIT

  3                                                   Court sends child home

                  Court sends child home                                                   Court orders child to be

                                                    with supervision or support

                      without services                                                       removed from home

                                                                services

                                                                                           Adjudicatory and

                                                                                                                               Agency works with child’s

                                            Child’s family works on plan               dispositional    hearing(s):

                                                                                                                              family and also develops an

                                             to be reunited with child             Court determines placement &

                                                                                                                               alternate permanency plan

                                                                                           permanency plan

                                                                                     Court places child in group

                                                 Court places child in foster                                              Court places child in the

                                                                                     home, shelter, or residential

                                                         family home                                                           home of a relative

                                                                                                 facility

                                                                    Court reviews progress every

                                                                  6 months and holds permanency

                                                                       hearing after 12 months

                                                Birth    family    completes    

                                                                                                 Birth    family    does    not    

                                               reunification    plan:    Child    

                                                                                              complete    reunification    plan

                                                    returns home

                         leaRn MoRe!                                                                   Court terminates parents’

                                                                                                    rights    (possible    appeals    follow)

                           To read a detailed

                    written summary of the

            process outlined in the chart,                                       Court places child in                           Child remains in foster

                   see    the    article    “A    Child’s                                   permanent    home    (adoptive,                              care and may receive

                Journey Through the Child                                        relative,    or    guardian)                       independent living services

                     Welfare    System”    in    the    

            Chapter 2 Resource Materials .                                                                                    Child remains in foster care

                                                                               Court holds adoption or                          until age 18, or in some

                                                                                 guardianship hearing                            states age 21, with no

           Time frames in chart are based on                                                                                        permanent home

           standards required by the Adoption

           and Safe Families Act (ASFA).                                        Case closed: Child has

                                                                                                                                 Case closed: Child has

                         Reprinted with permission from                      permanent    home    (adoptive,                                    “aged    out”

                                    Pew Charitable Trusts .                      relative,    or    guardian)

           V2-20      |    Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

----------------------- Page 23-----------------------

    activity 2G: Who participates in a Case?                                                       UnIt 3                   2

                                                                                                                          CHAPTER

    Read the information below about the roles of those involved                           the Roles in a

    in a court case. Record any questions you have in the Parking

    Lot. At the debriefing session, the facilitator will share                             Juvenile court

    information specific to your local jurisdiction. Note these                                    case

    differences in your manual.

t he child

3     Why    is    the    child’s    case    in    court

     •     A    petition    has    been    filed    alleging    abuse    or    neglect.

3     What    does    the    child    need    during    court    intervention

     •     The    child    needs    the    court    to    order    an    appropriate    intervention    

         and treatment plan so he/she can live in a safe, stable home

         without ongoing need for intervention from the child protection

         agency.

     •     The    areas    the    child    needs    addressed    include    safety/protection,    

         placement if the child is out of the home, family contact,

         belonging to a family, financial support, a support system,

         education, mental health, and physical health.

     •     The    child    needs    the    court    intervention    to    be    focused    and    timely.

     •     The    child    needs    services    provided    that    will    meet    his/her    needs.

     •     Other ______________________________________________________

casa/Gal Voluntee R

In my area this person is called           ________________________________

3     What    does    the    CASA/GAL    volunteer    do    in    the    case

     •     Independently    investigate    the    child’s    case

     •     Determine    the    child’s    needs

     •     Explore    family    and    community    resources    to    meet    the    child’s    needs

     •     Make    recommendations    to    the    court

     •     Advocate    for    the    child

     •     Monitor    the    case

     •     Be    the    voice    of    what    is    in    the    child’s    best    interest

     •     Be    the    voice    of    the    child’s    expressed    wishes

     •     Other ______________________________________________________

                                                         national CaSa Independent Study Manual              |  V2-21

----------------------- Page 24-----------------------

  2                                         3     What    does    the    CASA/GAL    volunteer    bring    to    the    case

CHAPTER                                         •     An    interest    in    improving    the    life    of    the    child    through    the    court    

                                                     process

                                                •     Time,    energy,    and    focus

UNIT

   1                                            •     Longevity    (he/she    often    stays    on    the    case    from    beginning    to    end)

                                                •     An    “outside    the    system”    point    of    view    and    an    independent    

                                                     perspective

UNIT

                                                •     The    community’s    standard    for    the    care    and    protection    of    its    

  2                                                  children

                                                •     Other ______________________________________________________

UNIT                                       3     When    is    the    CASA/GAL    volunteer    involved    in    the    case

  3                                             •     In my jurisdiction:       ________________________________________

                                            atto Rney FoR the  casa/Gal  pRoGRa M o R child

            The attorney role varies        In my jurisdiction this attorney represents [circle one]:

               significantly between            The child’s wishes

           court jurisdictions. If an           The child’s best interest

              attorney is appointed,            The CASA/GAL program

                he/she is sometimes         3     What    does    the    attorney    for    the    program/child    do    in    the    case

             appointed to represent             •     Represent    the    child’s    best    interest    and/or    wishes,    and    protect    the    

                                                     child’s legal rights in court

            the CASA/GAL program

                                                •     Translate    the    CASA/GAL    volunteer’s    research    and    

         and sometimes appointed                     recommendations into a form that the court can effectively use

          to represent the child. In                 to address the child’s needs (within the law, within the scope of

                                                     the volunteer role, fact-based, etc.)

            some jurisdictions, two

                                                •     Provide    legal    consultation    to    the    CASA/GAL    volunteer    and    

           attorneys are appointed,                  program staff regarding the case (if the attorney represents the

                one to represent the                 program rather than the child directly)

           child’s best interest and            •     File    legal    documents    relevant    to    the    child’s    case

                one to represent the            •     Other ______________________________________________________

           child’s expressed wishes.        3     What    does    the    attorney    for    the    program/child    bring    to    the    case

          The facilitator will clarify          •     Legal    expertise,    facilitation    and    negotiation    skills,    and    

                                                     courtroom experience

               the role in your local

                                            3     When    is    the    attorney    for    the    program/child    involved    in    the    case

                        court system.

                                                •     From    the    petition    filing    through    the    end    of    the    court    case

                                            pa Rents/ca RetakeRs na Med in the petition

                                            In my area this person is called         ________________________________

                                            3     Why    are    the    parents/caretakers    involved    in    the    case

        V2-22    |   Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

----------------------- Page 25-----------------------

    •     They    have    been    forced    into    this    court    action    because    the    child                                                   2

        protection agency asked the court to intervene to protect the child

         from maltreatment and/or to have his/her basic needs met.                                                 CHAPTER

    •     They    need    to    comply    with    the    child    protection    agency’s    

         intervention plan and correct the conditions that led to the                                               UNIT

         child’s removal, thereby effectively protecting their child and/or                                           1

         enabling their child to return home.

    •     They    need    to    follow    the    orders    of    the    court    or    risk    having    their    

        parental rights terminated.                                                                                 UNIT

3     What    do    the    parents/caretakers    bring    to    the    case                                                                  2

    •     Love    for    the    child;    family    ties;    history    of    parenting;    abilities,    

        resources, and skills as parents; interactions with the child and

         each other; mental, emotional, and physical health or illness;                                             UNIT

         support system; housing and income; and their own issues/                                                   3

        problems

atto Rney FoR the  pa Rent/ca RetakeR

3     What    does    the    attorney    for    the    parent/caretaker    do    in    the    case

    •     Represent    the    wishes    of    the    parent/caretaker    he/she    represents

    •     Protect    the    legal    rights    of    the    parent/caretaker    in    court

    •     Advise    the    parent/caretaker    on    legal    matters

    •     File    legal    documents    relevant    to    the    case

    •     Other ______________________________________________________

3     What    does    the    attorney    for    the    parent/caretaker    bring    to    the    case

    •     Legal    expertise,    facilitation    and    negotiation    skills,    and    

         courtroom experience

3     When    is    the    attorney    for    the    parent/caretaker    involved    in    the    case

    •     From    the    petition    filing    through    the    end    of    the    court    case

child pRotection aG ency caseWoRkeR

In my area this person is called        ________________________________

3     What    is    the    role    of    the    child    protection    agency    caseworker    in    the    case

    •     The    caseworker    has    completed    a    risk    assessment    process    and,    

        based on risk and/or substantiated allegations of abuse and/

         or neglect, has determined the need for court intervention. The

         caseworker petitioned the court to intervene on the child’s behalf

        because:

        º    He/she has developed an intervention plan with the family,

             which has not resulted in eliminating the risk that child

             maltreatment will recur, or

        º    Due to risk of imminent danger, he/she has removed the

             child from his/her home to ensure the child’s safety.

                                                      national CaSa Independent Study Manual           |  V2-23

----------------------- Page 26-----------------------

  2                                            •     The    caseworker    needs    the    court    to    order    that    the    agency’s    

                                                   intervention and treatment plan be followed by the parents/

CHAPTER                                            caretakers and other service providers so that the need for

                                                   continuous agency intervention is not required to ensure the

                                                   child receives proper care and protection.

UNIT

   1                                           •     The    caseworker    is    responsible    for    managing    the    case    and    

                                                   arranging for court-ordered services to be provided to the child

                                                   and the child’s family.

UNIT                                          •     Other ______________________________________________________

  2                                        3     What    does    the    child    protection    agency    caseworker    bring    to    the    case

                                               •     Training    in    analyzing    risk,    assessing    service    needs,    and    

                                                   providing guidance to families

UNIT

  3                                            •     Direct    services    for    families    to    provide    them    with    the    knowledge,    

                                                   skills, and resources necessary for change

                                               •     Links    to    other    service    providers    so    that    the    family    can    access    

                                                   resources outside the child protective services system

                                           3     When    is    the    child    protection    agency    caseworker    involved    in    the    case

                                               •     From    the    initial    contact    with    the    family    and/or    child    until    the    

                                                   agency’s services are no longer needed

                                           atto Rney FoR the  child pRotection aG ency

                                           oR the  county oR the  state

                                           In my area this person is called        ________________________________

                                           In my jurisdiction this attorney represents [circle one]:

                                               The child protection agency

                                               The county

                                               The state

                                           3     What    does    this    attorney    do    in    the    case

                                               •     Represent    the    position    of    the    agency/county/state    in    court

                                               •     Protect    the    agency/county/state    from    liability

                                               •     Advise    the    agency/county/state    regarding    its    responsibilities    

                                                   as outlined in the law

                                               •     File    legal    documents    relevant    to    the    case

                                               •     Other ______________________________________________________

                                           3     What    does    this    attorney    bring    to    the    case

                                               •     Legal    expertise,    facilitation    and    negotiation    skills,    and    

                                                   courtroom experience

                                           3     When    is    this    attorney    involved    in    the    case

                                               •     From    the    petition    filing    through    the    end    of    the    case

        V2-24    |  Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

----------------------- Page 27-----------------------

indian child’s tR ibe                                                                                                 2

3     What    does    the    Indian    child’s    tribe    do    in    the    case                                                                CHAPTER

    •     Represent    to    the    court    the    “best    interest    of    the    child”    as    defined    

        by the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA)

                                                                                                                     UNIT

    •     Ensure    that    the    parents,    the    child,    and    the    tribe    have    all    the                                                     1

         rights they are afforded pursuant to ICWA

    •     Bring    to    the    attention    of    the    court    culturally    relevant    service    

         options and dispositional recommendations                                                                   UNIT

    •     Protect    the    tribe’s    interest    in    the    child    and    ensure    the                                                          2

         preservation of the child’s ties to the tribe and its resources

    •     Where    appropriate,    offer    or    require    that    the    tribe    take    

         jurisdiction of the matter                                                                                  UNIT

                                                                                                                      3

    •     File    legal    documents    when    it    is    necessary

    •     Other ______________________________________________________

3     What    does    the    tribe    bring    to    the    case

    •     A    very    special    perspective    on    preservation    of    the    child’s    ties    to    

         the tribe

    •     Knowledge    of    relevant    cultural    practices    and    culturally    relevant    

         services that can be considered as potential resources for the child

JudGe

3     What    does    the    judge    do    in    the    case

    •     Determine    if    there    is    a    continued    safety    issue    for    the    child    that    

         necessitates continued out-of-home placement if the child has

        been removed from home

    •     Decide    if    the    child    is    abused    or    neglected,    and    if    so,    order    

         services that will address the needs of the child

    •     Order    appropriate    reviews

    •     Hear    testimony,    motions,    etc.,    regarding    the    case

    •     Approve    the    permanent    plan    for    the    child

    •     Order    termination    of    parental    rights    when    appropriate

    •     Settle    disputed    adoption    cases

    •     Close    the    court    case    when    there    is    no    longer    a    need    for    court    

         intervention or the permanent plan has been achieved

    •     Other ______________________________________________________

3     When    is    the    judge    involved    in    the    case

    •     From    the    request    for    emergency    custody    at    the    petition    filing    

         until the court case is closed (or, if the child is not removed from

         home, from the arraignment or adjudication hearing, depending

         on jurisdiction, until the court case is closed)

                                                      national CaSa Independent Study Manual            |  V2-25

----------------------- Page 28-----------------------

  2                                                activity 2h: roles in the harris-price Case

CHAPTER

                                                   The names of the people involved in the Harris-Price case appear

                                                   in the left-hand column below. Anonymous quotes by people

UNIT                                              in the case appear in the right-hand column. Draw a line that

   1                                               matches up each quote with the person who you think is most

                                                   likely to have said it. When you finish, check your answers

                                                   against    those    in    the    Answer    Key    at    the    end    of    the    manual.    Write    

                                                   down any questions you have in the Parking Lot.

UNIT

  2

              Who participated in

              the Harris-Price case                                                             What participants said

UNIT

                        Robert                                                               Ben was babysitting. He’s 14. She

  3

                                                                                              did not leave the children alone.

                          Ben

                                                                                                He is 14 and he is almost on

                                                                                                his own. He doesn’t need me.

                     Kathy    Price

                      Ernie Price                                                                I want to live with my dad.

                     Jason Harris                                                            I do not have all the information yet.

                      Carol Hill                                                              I worry about Robert and Rose—

                                                                                              they’re used to me taking care of

                                                                                                them. When can I see them?

                    Judge Romero

                                                                                                      I will take him in,

                    Bob Johnson,                                                                 but I can’t take the others.

                   CPS caseworker

                                                                                                  The children need a more

                  Norma Jackson,                                                                    stable living situation.

                CASA/GAL volunteer

                                                                                                  I’m doing the best I can.

                   Anne Franklin,

                    foster mother

                                                                                                    This family has tried,

                                                                                                 but there are still problems.

                 Mother’s attorney

                                                                                                I know that I am responsible

                  Attorney for CPS                                                                and I can do it, especially

                                                                                                  since my mom will help.

                                                                                              Why aren’t the siblings visiting?

                                                                                             I’m worried about Rose. She’s not

                                                                                                doing the things other babies

                                                                                                   I’ve cared for could do.

         V2-26     |  Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

----------------------- Page 29-----------------------

Chapter Evaluation                                                                                                         2

Fill out the Chapter 2 Independent Study Training Evaluation, which                                                      CHAPTER

follows. Turn it in to the facilitator at the next debriefing session.

Looking Ahead

ResouRce MateRials exploRation

Look    at    the    Chapter    3    Web    Resources    or    the    Chapter    3    Resource    Materials.    

Pick at least one website or article to explore. When you come to the

training    session    for    Chapter    3,    which    will    be    done    in    a    group    setting,    write    

up a brief description of the resource on an index card provided by the

facilitator.

cultuRal  exploRation

Prior    to    the    Chapter    3    session,    read    the    articles    about    cultural    

competence issues assigned and provided by the facilitator. The

facilitator will let you know which cultural groups in your community

you should be familiar with as a GASA/GAL volunteer. As you read

the articles, note any questions or ideas you have for working with

people from different cultures. These articles do not necessarily represent

the viewpoint of the National CASA Association or your local CASA/

GAL program. Please recognize that no single article about a cultural

group can adequately describe one person or one family. These articles

are designed to provide an introduction to the many cultures and

perspectives represented in your communities. In order to gain a broader

understanding of a particular cultural group, consider doing research on

your own.

                                                        national CaSa Independent Study Manual              |   V2-27

----------------------- Page 30-----------------------

V2-28   |   Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

----------------------- Page 31-----------------------

                     chapter 2  independent study training evaluation (1    of    2)

                              Please circle the number of the descriptor that best matches your views

                                    and write any comments in the space provided. Thank you.

1 . Please rate the chapter overall .                                 Poor                                                     Excellent

                                                                       1               2                3               4                5

Comments:

2 . The facilitator was available to me if I needed                   Not at All                                                    Very

   assistance .                                                        1               2                3               4                5

Comments:

3 . The content of this session will be useful to me in my            Not at All                                                    Very

   work .                                                              1               2                3               4                5

Comments:

4 . I can explain how a case enters the child welfare                 Not at All                                                   Easily

   system .                                                            1               2                3               4                5

Comments:

5 . I am familiar with the laws governing child welfare               Not at All                                                    Very

   cases .                                                             1               2                3               4                5

Comments:

6 . I can name the people involved in a juvenile court                Not at All                                                   Easily

   case and briefly describe their roles .                             1               2                3               4                5

Comments:

                                                                 national CaSa Independent Study Manual                   |   V2-29

----------------------- Page 32-----------------------

                   chapter 2  independent study training evaluation (2    of    2)

7.    What    I    liked    least    about    this    chapter    was    .    .    .

8.    What    I    liked    most    about    this    chapter    was    .    .    .

9.    In    order    to    utilize    the    information    I’ve    learned,    I    will    need    .    .    .

    V2-30    |   Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts

----------------------- Page 33-----------------------

                                    chapter 2  parking lot (1    of    2)

aCtIVItY #        QUeStIon

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                                                    national CaSa Independent Study Manual       |  V2-31

----------------------- Page 34-----------------------

                                    chapter 2  parking lot (2    of    2)

                                             ConCernS or IDeaS

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    V2-32   |  Introducing the Law, the Child protection System & the Courts