Thursday, July 17, 2014

Arizona Systemwide Online Resources for State Child Welfare Law and Policy

 

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Statutes:

Website for Statutes: http://www.azleg.gov/ArizonaRevisedStatutes.asp
Citations:

  • Adoption: Title 8, Chapter 1
  • Child Protection: Title 8, Chapter 10, Articles 1, 2
  • Child Welfare: Title 8, Chapter 5; Chapter 10, Articles 3-7; Chapter 11
  • Guardianship: Title 8, Chapter 10, Article 5; § 8-814
  • Youth Services: Title 8, Chapter 5, §§ 8-521 & 8-521.01

Regulation/Policy

Website for Administrative Code: http://www.azsos.gov/public_services/Table_of_Contents.htm
Note:
See Title 6, Chapter 5, Articles 55, 56, 58-60, 65-67, 69, 70, 74, 75, 80; Chapter 18

Website for Agency Policies: https://extranet.azdes.gov/dcyfpolicy/external link
Note:
Children's Services Manual, including:

  • Chapter 15: Guardianship, including subsidized guardianship
  • Chapter 17: Independent Living Services

Other Resources

Arizona Court Rulesexternal link

Arizona Ombudsman

Tribal Codes available online:

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Child Abuse and Neglect

Child Witnesses to Domestic Violence

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Circumstances That Constitute Witnessing
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 13-702(C)
In criminal law: An act of domestic violence, as defined in § 13-3601(A), that was committed in the presence of a child will be considered an aggravating circumstance.
Consequences
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 13-702(C)
An act of domestic violence committed in the presence of a child is considered an aggravating circumstance when determining a sentence and may result in a longer period of incarceration.

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Clergy as Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect

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Citation: Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-3620(A)-(B)

Any member of the clergy, priest, or Christian Science practitioner who reasonably believes that a minor is or has been the victim of injury, abuse, child abuse, a reportable offense, or neglect shall immediately report or cause a report to be made.

A member of the clergy, a Christian Science practitioner, or a priest who has received a confidential communication or a confession in that person's role as a member of the clergy, a Christian Science practitioner, or a priest in the course of the discipline enjoined by the church to which the member of the clergy, Christian Science practitioner, or priest belongs may withhold reporting of the communication or confession if the member of the clergy, Christian Science practitioner, or priest determines that it is reasonable and necessary within the concepts of the religion. This exemption applies only to the communication or confession and not to the personal observations the member of the clergy, Christian Science practitioner, or priest may otherwise make of the minor.

In any civil or criminal litigation in which a child's neglect, dependency, physical injury, abuse, child abuse, or abandonment is an issue, a member of the clergy, a Christian Science practitioner, or a priest shall not, without his or her consent, be examined as a witness concerning any confession made to him or her in his or her role as a member of the clergy, a Christian Science practitioner, or a priest in the course of the discipline enjoined by the church to which he or she belongs. This subsection does not discharge a member of the clergy, a Christian Science practitioner, or a priest from the duty to report as required above.

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Cross-Reporting Among Responders to Child Abuse and Neglect

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Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-3620(H) (LexisNexis through 2012 2nd Reg. Sess.)

When telephone or in-person reports are received by a peace officer, the officer immediately shall notify child protective services in the Department of Economic Security and make the information available to them. Notwithstanding any other statute, when child protective services receives these reports by telephone or in person, it immediately shall notify a peace officer in the appropriate jurisdiction.

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Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect

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Physical Abuse
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-201
'Abuse' means:

  • Inflicting or allowing physical injury, impairment of bodily function, or disfigurement
  • Physical injury that results from permitting a child to enter or remain in any structure or vehicle in which volatile, toxic, or flammable chemicals are found or equipment is possessed by any person for the purpose of manufacturing a dangerous drug
  • Unreasonable confinement of a child

'Serious physical injury' means an injury that is diagnosed by a medical doctor and that does any one or a combination of the following:

  • Creates a reasonable risk of death
  • Causes serious or permanent disfigurement
  • Causes significant physical pain
  • Causes serious impairment of health
  • Causes the loss or protracted impairment of an organ or limb
  • Is the result of sexual abuse, sexual conduct with a minor, sexual assault, molestation of a child, child prostitution, commercial sexual exploitation of a minor, sexual exploitation, or incest

Neglect
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-201
'Neglect' or 'neglected' means:
  • The inability or unwillingness of a parent, guardian, or custodian of a child to provide that child with supervision, food, clothing, shelter, or medical care if that inability or unwillingness causes unreasonable risk of harm to the child's health or welfare
  • Permitting a child to enter or remain in any structure or vehicle in which volatile, toxic, or flammable chemicals are found or equipment is possessed by any person for the purposes of manufacturing a dangerous drug
  • A determination by a health professional that a newborn infant was exposed prenatally to a drug or substance listed in § 13-3401 and that this exposure was not the result of a medical treatment administered to the mother or the newborn infant by a health professional
  • A diagnosis by a health professional of an infant under age 1 with clinical findings consistent with fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effects

The determination by a health professional of prenatal exposure to a controlled substance shall be based on one or more of the following:

  • Clinical indicators in the prenatal period, including maternal and newborn presentation
  • History of substance use or abuse
  • Medical history
  • Results of a toxicology or other laboratory test on the mother or the newborn infant

Sexual Abuse/Exploitation
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-201
The term 'abuse' includes:
  • Inflicting or allowing sexual abuse
  • Sexual conduct with a minor
  • Sexual assault
  • Molestation of a child
  • Commercial sexual exploitation of a minor
  • Sexual exploitation of a minor
  • Incest
  • Child prostitution

The term 'neglect' includes:

  • Deliberate exposure of a child by a parent, guardian, or custodian to sexual conduct, as defined in § 13-3551, or sexual contact, oral sexual contact, sexual intercourse, bestiality, or explicit sexual materials
  • Any of the following acts committed by the child's parent, guardian, or custodian with reckless disregard as to whether the child is physically present:
    • Sexual contact
    • Oral sexual contact
    • Sexual intercourse
    • Bestiality

Emotional Abuse
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-201
The term 'abuse' includes inflicting or allowing another person to cause serious emotional damage to a child, as evidenced by severe anxiety, depression, withdrawal, or untoward aggressive behavior, and such emotional damage is diagnosed by a medical doctor or psychologist, and the damage has been caused by the acts or omissions of an individual having care, custody, and control of a child.

'Serious emotional injury' means an injury that is diagnosed by a medical doctor or a psychologist and that does any one or a combination of the following:

  • Seriously impairs mental faculties
  • Causes serious anxiety, depression, withdrawal, or social dysfunction behavior to the extent that the child suffers dysfunction that requires treatment
  • Is the result of sexual abuse, sexual conduct with a minor, sexual assault, molestation of a child, child prostitution, commercial sexual exploitation of a minor, sexual exploitation of a minor, or incest

Abandonment
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-201
'Abandoned' means:
  • The failure of the parent to provide reasonable support and to maintain regular contact with the child, including providing normal supervision
  • That a parent has made only minimal efforts to support and communicate with the child

Failure to maintain a normal parental relationship with the child without just cause for a period of 6 months shall constitute prima facie evidence of abandonment.
Standards for Reporting
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 13-3620
A report is required when a person reasonably believes that a child is or has been the victim of physical injury, abuse, or child abuse.
Persons Responsible for the Child
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-201
Responsible persons include:

  • The parent
  • A person having care, custody, and control of a child

Exceptions
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-201
A dependent child does not include a child who, in good faith, is being furnished Christian Science treatment by a duly accredited practitioner.

A child is not considered neglected if a parent's inability to meet the needs of the child is due solely to the unavailability of reasonable services.

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Definitions of Domestic Violence

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Defined in Domestic Violence Civil Laws
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 36-3001

'Domestic violence' means attempting to cause or causing bodily injury to a family or household member or placing a family or household member by threat of force in fear of imminent physical harm.
Defined in Child Abuse Reporting and Child Protection Laws
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-801; 13-705

In civil law: In this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires, 'criminal conduct allegation' means an allegation of conduct by a parent, guardian, or custodian of a child that, if true, would constitute any of the following:

  • A violation of § 13-3623 involving child abuse
  • A felony offense that constitutes domestic violence, as defined in § 13-3601
  • Sexual abuse or assault of a minor
  • Sexual conduct with a minor or molestation of a child
  • Any other act of abuse that is classified as a felony
  • An offense that constitutes domestic violence as defined in § 13-3601 and that involves a minor who is a victim of or was in imminent danger during the domestic violence

In criminal law: 'Dangerous crime against children' means any of the following that is committed against a minor who is under age 15:

  • Second-degree murder
  • Aggravated assault resulting in serious physical injury or involving the discharge, use, or threatening exhibition of a deadly weapon or dangerous instrument
  • Sexual assault
  • Molestation of a child
  • Sexual conduct with a minor
  • Sexual exploitation or commercial sexual exploitation of a minor
  • Child abuse, as described in § 13-3623(A)(1)
  • Kidnapping
  • Sexual abuse
  • Taking or luring a child for the purpose of prostitution or child prostitution
  • Involving or using minors in drug offenses
  • Continuous sexual abuse of a child
  • Attempted first-degree murder
  • Sex trafficking
  • Manufacturing methamphetamine under circumstances that cause physical injury to a minor
  • Bestiality
  • Luring a minor for sexual exploitation
  • Aggravated luring a minor for sexual exploitation
  • Unlawful age misrepresentation

Defined in Criminal Laws
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 13-3601

'Domestic violence' means any act that constitutes one of the following offenses:
  • A dangerous crime against children
  • Homicide, murder, or manslaughter
  • Endangerment
  • A threatening or intimidating act
  • Assault
  • Custodial interference
  • Unlawful imprisonment or kidnapping
  • Sexual assault
  • Criminal trespass
  • Criminal damage
  • Interfering with judicial proceedings
  • Disorderly conduct
  • Cruelty to animals
  • Intentionally preventing the use of a telephone by another person during an emergency
  • Use of an electronic communication to terrify, intimidate, threaten, harass, annoy, or offend
  • Harassment
  • Aggravated harassment
  • Stalking
  • Aggravated domestic violence
  • Surreptitious photographing, videotaping, or filming
  • Child or vulnerable adult abuse
  • Emotional abuse

Persons Included in the Definition
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 13-3601; 36-3001

In criminal law: An act listed above is considered domestic violence if any of the following applies:
  • The relationship between the victim and the defendant is one of marriage or former marriage or of persons residing or having resided in the same household.
  • The victim and the defendant have a child in common.
  • The victim or the defendant is pregnant by the other party.
  • The victim is related to the defendant or the defendant's spouse by blood or court order as a parent, grandparent, child, grandchild, brother, or sister, or by marriage as a parent-in-law, grandparent-in-law, stepparent, stepgrandparent, stepchild, stepgrandchild, brother-in-law, or sister-in-law.
  • The victim is a child who resides or has resided in the same household as the defendant and is related by blood to a former spouse of the defendant or to a person who resides or who has resided in the same household as the defendant.
  • The relationship between the victim and the defendant is currently or was previously a romantic or sexual relationship. The following factors may be considered in determining whether the relationship between the victim and the defendant is currently or was previously a romantic or sexual relationship:
    • The type of relationship
    • The length of the relationship
    • The frequency of the interaction between the victim and the defendant
    • If the relationship has terminated, the length of time since the termination

In civil law: 'Family or household member' means a spouse, a former spouse, a parent, a child, or other adult person related by consanguinity or affinity who is residing or has resided in the household, or has a child or children in common with the person committing the domestic violence, and dependents of such persons.

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Disclosure of Confidential Child Abuse and Neglect Records

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Confidentiality of Records
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-807
Child Protective Services (CPS) information shall be maintained by the Department of Economic Security as required by Federal law.

If the department receives information that is confidential by law, the department shall maintain the confidentiality of the information as prescribed in the applicable law.
Persons or Entities Allowed Access to Records
Rev. Stat. § 8-807

If there is a reasonable need for the CPS information, the department may provide the information to:

  • A Federal, State, Tribal, county, or municipal agency
  • A law enforcement agency or prosecutor
  • An attorney or a guardian ad litem representing a child victim
  • A school
  • A community or contract service provider or any other person providing services
  • A court
  • A party in a dependency or termination of parental rights proceeding or the party's attorney
  • The foster care review board
  • A court-appointed special advocate
  • A person who is the subject of the information
  • A person who is conducting bona fide research
  • The parent, guardian, or custodian of a child if the information is reasonably necessary to promote the safety, permanency, and well-being of the child
  • A medical examiner directing an investigation into the circumstances surrounding a death
  • Federal or State auditors
  • Persons conducting any accreditation deemed necessary by the department
  • A legislative committee for purposes of conducting investigations related to the legislative oversight of the department
  • A legislator who requests CPS information in the regular course of his or her duties
  • A citizen review panel, a child fatality review team, and the Office of Ombudsman-Citizen's Aide

The department shall provide the person who conducts a forensic medical evaluation with any records the person requests, including social history and family history regarding the child, the child's siblings, and the child's parents or guardians.

The department shall provide CPS information on request to a prospective adoptive parent, foster parent, or guardian if the information concerns a child the prospective adoptive parent, foster parent, or guardian seeks to adopt or provide care for.

A person who is the subject of an unfounded report or complaint, and who believes that the report or complaint was made in bad faith or with malicious intent may petition a judge of the superior court to order the department to release the CPS information. The petition shall specifically set forth reasons supporting the person's belief that the report or complaint was made in bad faith or with malicious intent. The court shall review the CPS information in camera and the person filing the petition shall be allowed to present evidence in support of the petition. If the court determines that there is a reasonable question of fact as to whether the report or complaint was made in bad faith or with malicious intent and that disclosure of the identity of the person making the report or complaint would not be likely to endanger the life or safety of the person making the report or complaint, it shall provide a copy of the CPS information to the person filing the petition. The original CPS information will then be subject to discovery in a subsequent civil action regarding the making of the report or complaint.

A person may authorize the release of CPS information about the person but may not waive the confidentiality of CPS information concerning any other person. The department may provide a summary of the outcome of a child protective services investigation to the person who reported the suspected child abuse or neglect.
When Public Disclosure of Records is Allowed
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-807(F)
The department may provide CPS information to confirm, clarify, or correct information concerning an allegation or actual instance of child abuse or neglect that has been made public by sources outside the department.

The department shall promptly provide CPS information to the public regarding a case of child abuse, abandonment, or neglect that has resulted in a fatality or near fatality as follows:

  • The department shall provide preliminary information including:
    • The name; age; and city, town, or general location of residence of the child who has suffered a near fatality or fatality
    • The fact that a child suffered a near fatality or fatality as the result of abuse, abandonment, or neglect
    • The name; age; and city, town, or general location of residence of the alleged perpetrator, if available
    • Whether there have been reports or any current or past cases of abuse, abandonment, or neglect involving the child and the current alleged abusive or neglectful parent, guardian, or custodian
    • Actions taken by child protective services in response to the fatality or near fatality of the child
  • On request by any person, the department shall promptly provide additional CPS information to the requestor. Before releasing additional CPS information, the department shall promptly notify the county attorney, and the county attorney shall promptly inform the department if it believes the release would cause a specific, material harm to a criminal investigation.
  • On request, the department shall continue to provide CPS information promptly to the public about a fatality or near fatality unless, after consultation with the county attorney, the county attorney demonstrates that release of particular CPS information would cause a specific, material harm to a criminal investigation.

Use of Records for Employment Screening
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-804
Information contained in the central registry shall be used by the department only for the following purposes:
  • To conduct background checks as one factor to determine qualifications for foster home licensing, adoptive parent certification, child care home certification, registration of unregulated child care homes with the child care resource and referral system, and home and community-based services certification for services to children
  • To conduct background checks as one factor to determine qualifications for persons applying for employment with this State in positions that provide direct service to children or vulnerable adults and persons applying for contracts with this State, including employees of the potential contractor, for positions that provide direct service to children or vulnerable adults

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Establishment and Maintenance of Central Registries for Child Abuse Reports

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Establishment
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-804(A)
The Department of Economic Security shall maintain a central registry.
Purpose
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-804; 8-804.01
The records in the registry may be used:

  • To conduct background checks as one factor to determine qualifications for foster home licensing, adoptive parent certification, child care home certification, registration of unregulated child care homes with the child care resource and referral system, and home and community-based services certification for services to children
  • To conduct background checks as one factor to determine qualifications for persons applying for employment in positions that provide direct service to children or vulnerable adults
  • To identify and review reports concerning individual children and families, in order to facilitate the assessment of risk
  • To determine the nature and scope of child abuse and neglect in this State and to provide statewide statistical and demographic information concerning trends in child abuse and neglect
  • To allow comparisons of this State's statistical data with national data
  • To comply with § 8-804.01(B), which allows use of the records:
    • To assess the safety and risk to a child
    • To determine placement
    • To determine type and level of services
    • To assist in a criminal investigation
    • To meet Federal and State reporting requirements

Contents
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-804(A)-(B)
A finding made by a court pursuant to § 8-844(C) that a child is dependent based upon an allegation of abuse or neglect shall be recorded as a substantiated finding of abuse or neglect. The registry will maintain reports of child abuse and neglect that are substantiated and the outcome of investigations.
Maintenance
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-804; 8-804.01
If the department received a report before September 1, 1999, and determined that the report was substantiated, the department shall maintain the report in the central registry until 18 years from the child victim's date of birth.

If the department received a report on or after September 1, 1999, and determined that the report was substantiated, the department shall maintain the report in the central registry for 25 years after the date of the report.

All reports of child abuse and neglect and related records shall be maintained in the department's case management information system in accordance with the timeframes established in the department's records retention schedule.

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Immunity for Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect

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Citation: Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-3620(J) (LexisNexis through 2011 Sess.)
Statute:

A person who furnishes a report, information, or records required or authorized under this section, or a person who participates in a judicial or administrative proceeding or investigation resulting from a report, information, or records required or authorized under this section, is immune from any civil or criminal liability by reason of that action, unless the person acted with malice or unless the person has been charged with or is suspected of abusing or neglecting the child or children in question.

Citation: Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 8-805(A) (LexisNexis through 2011 Sess.)
Statute:

Any person making a complaint, providing information, or otherwise participating in the program authorized by this article shall be immune from any civil or criminal liability by reason of such action, unless such person acted with malice or unless such person has been charged with or is suspected of abusing, abandoning, or neglecting the child or children in question.

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Making and Screening Reports of Child Abuse and Neglect

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Individual Responsibility to Report
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 13-3620
Any mandated reporter who reasonably believes that a minor is the victim of abuse or neglect shall report immediately to a peace officer or child protective services (CPS) in the Department of Economic Security. The report may be made by telephone or in person and must be followed by a written report within 72 hours.
Content of Reports
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 13-3620
The reports shall contain:

  • The names and addresses of the minor and the minor's parents or the person having custody
  • The minor's age
  • The nature and extent of any injuries or neglect, including any evidence of previous injuries or neglect
  • Any other information that might be helpful

Reporting Suspicious Deaths
Citation:
This issue is not addressed in the statutes reviewed.
Reporting Substance-Exposed Infants
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 13-3620
A health-care professional who, after a routine newborn physical assessment, believes that a newborn infant may be affected by the presence of alcohol or drugs shall immediately make a report to CPS.
Agency Receiving the Reports
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 13-3620(H); Admin. Code § R6-5-5502
When reports are received by a peace officer, the officer shall immediately notify CPS. When CPS receives a report, it shall immediately notify a peace officer in the appropriate jurisdiction.

In regulation: The department operates a Child Abuse Hotline to receive and screen incoming communications. If a person calls, visits, or writes a department office other than the Child Abuse Hotline to report child maltreatment, the department shall refer the person or written communication to the hotline.
Initial Screening Decisions
Citation: Admin. Code §§ R6-5-5502; 5504; 5506
When the hotline receives a call, staff shall determine the type of alleged maltreatment, whether to classify the call as a report for investigation, and check the central registry for prior reports on the same persons.

If a call is screened in as a report, the hotline staff shall gather additional information using standardized questions, determine whether there are aggravating or mitigating factors, and assign each report a priority code. Staff shall enter the report into the central registry and immediately transmit the report to a local office.

Upon receipt of a report, a CPS unit supervisor shall assign the case for a field investigation, alternative investigation, or alternative response, such as referral to Family Builders.
Agency Conducting the Assessment/Investigation
Citation: Admin. Code § R6-5-5505
To comply with the priority response time, entities other than CPS, such as law enforcement or emergency personnel, may initially respond to a report.
Assessment/Investigation Procedures
Citation: Admin. Code §§ R6-5-5507; 5508
An alternative investigation consists of contact with a mandatory reporter who is currently involved with the family. The information will determine if the child and other children residing in the home are current victims of maltreatment or at risk of imminent harm. If results indicate that an alleged victim is at risk of harm, the case shall be immediately assigned for field investigation.

When conducting a field investigation, a CPS specialist shall determine:

  • The name, age, location, and current physical and mental condition of all children in the home of the alleged victim
  • Whether any child in the home has suffered maltreatment
  • Whether any child in the home is at risk of maltreatment in the future

A CPS specialist shall interview the alleged victim; the alleged victim's caregiver who allegedly committed the abuse; other adults and children residing in the home; and other persons who may have relevant information, including the reporting source, medical personnel, relatives, neighbors, and school personnel. The CPS specialist also shall review available documentation including medical and psychiatric reports, police reports, school records, and prior CPS files or consult with law enforcement.

A CPS specialist may interview a child without prior parental consent under § 8-802(C)(2). A CPS specialist may exclude the alleged abuser from participating in an interview with the alleged victim, the alleged victim's siblings, or other children residing in the alleged victim's household.

Before interviewing a caregiver, a CPS specialist shall:

  • Orally inform the caregiver of the rights and duties under § 8-803(B)
  • Give the caregiver a written statement summarizing the same information
  • Ask the caregiver to sign a written acknowledgment of receipt of the information

Timeframes for Completing Investigations
Citation: Admin. Code § 56-5-5505
Priority codes and initial response times are:
  • Priority 1 High Risk:
    • Standard Response: 2 hours
    • Mitigated Response: 24 hours
  • Priority 2 Moderate Risk:
    • Standard Response: 48 hours
    • Aggravated Response: 24 hours
    • Mitigated Response: 72 hours
  • Priority 3 Low Risk:
    • Standard Response: 72 hours
    • Aggravated Response: 48 hours
    • Mitigated Response: 72 hours excluding weekends and Arizona State holidays
  • Priority 4 Potential Risk:
    • Standard Response: 7 days
    • Aggravated Response: 72 hours excluding weekends and Arizona State holidays

Classification of Reports
Citation: Admin. Code. § R6-5-5510
After completing an investigation and considering the information listed in R6-5-5509, a CPS specialist shall unsubstantiate the allegations or make a proposed finding that the allegation is substantiated based on whether the CPS specialist finds probable cause to believe maltreatment occurred.

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Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect

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Professionals Required to Report
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 13-3620
The following persons are required to report:

  • Physicians, physician's assistants, optometrists, dentists, behavioral health professionals, nurses, psychologists, counselors, or social workers
  • Peace officers, child welfare investigators, or child protective services workers
  • Members of the clergy, priests, or Christian Science practitioners
  • Parents, stepparents, or guardians
  • School personnel or domestic violence victim advocates
  • Any other person who has responsibility for the care or treatment of minors

Reporting by Other Persons
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 13-3620
Any other person who reasonably believes that a minor is a victim of abuse or neglect may report.
Standards for Making a Report
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 13-3620
A report is required when the reporter reasonably believes that a minor is a victim of abuse or neglect.
Privileged Communications
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 13-3620
Only the attorney-client and the clergy-penitent privileges are recognized.
Inclusion of Reporter's Name in Report
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.
Disclosure of Reporter Identity
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

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Parental Drug Use as Child Abuse

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Citation: Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-3620(E) (LexisNexis through 2012 2nd Spec. Sess.)
Statute Text:

A health-care professional who, after a routine newborn physical assessment of a newborn infant's health status, or following notification of positive toxicology screens of a newborn infant, reasonably believes that the newborn infant may be affected by the presence of alcohol or a drug listed in § 13-3401 shall immediately report this information, or cause a report to be made, to Child Protective Services in the Department of Economic Security. For the purposes of this subsection, 'newborn infant' means a newborn infant who is under 30 days of age.

Citation: Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 8-201(2)(b) (LexisNexis through 2012 2nd Reg. Sess.)
Statute Text:

'Abuse' includes physical injury that results from permitting a child to enter or remain in any structure or vehicle in which volatile, toxic, or flammable chemicals are found or equipment is possessed by any person for the purpose of manufacturing a dangerous drug, as defined in § 13-3401.

Citation: Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-3623(C) (LexisNexis through 2012 2nd Spec. Sess.)
Statute Text:

For the purposes of subsections A and B of this section, the terms 'endangered' and 'abuse' include, but are not limited to, circumstances in which a child or vulnerable adult is permitted to enter or remain in any structure or vehicle in which volatile, toxic, or flammable chemicals are found or equipment is possessed by any person for the purpose of manufacturing a dangerous drug in violation of § 13-3407(A)(3) or (4).

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a violation committed under circumstances described in this subsection does not require that a person have care or custody of the child or vulnerable adult.

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Penalties for Failure to Report and False Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect

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Failure to Report
Rev. Stat. § 13-3620(O)

A person who violates this section requiring the reporting of child abuse or neglect is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor, except if the failure to report involves a reportable offense, in which case the person is guilty of a Class 6 felony.
False Reporting
Rev. Stat. § 13-3620.01

A person acting with malice who knowingly and intentionally makes a false report of child abuse or neglect, or a person acting with malice who coerces another person to make a false report of child abuse or neglect, is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

A person who knowingly and intentionally makes a false report that another person made a false report is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

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Representation of Children in Child Abuse and Neglect Proceedings

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Making The Appointment
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-221

In all juvenile court proceedings in which the dependency petition includes an allegation that the juvenile is abused or neglected, the court shall appoint a guardian ad litem (GAL) to protect the juvenile's best interests. This guardian may be an attorney or a court-appointed special advocate.
The Use of Court-Appointed Special Advocates (CASAs)
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-523; 8-524

The court-appointed special advocate program is established in the Administrative Office of the Supreme Court. The program shall establish local special advocate programs in each county.

The Supreme Court shall adopt rules prescribing the establishment of local programs and the minimum performance standards of these programs.

The court-appointed special advocate fund consists of moneys received pursuant to § 5-518 [from unclaimed prizes from the State lottery]. The fund is subject to annual legislative appropriation. Moneys appropriated by the legislature from the court-appointed special advocate fund for the court-appointed special advocate program shall be used by the Supreme Court to operate, improve, maintain, and enhance the program.
Qualifications/Training
Citation:

This issue is not addressed in the statutes reviewed.
Specific Duties
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-221

The GAL or attorney for a juvenile shall meet with the juvenile before the preliminary protective hearing, if possible, or within 14 days after the preliminary protective hearing. The GAL or attorney for the juvenile also shall meet with the juvenile before all substantive hearings. Upon a showing of extraordinary circumstances, the judge may modify this requirement for any substantive hearing.
How the Representative Is Compensated
Citation:

This issue is not addressed in the statutes reviewed.

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Review and Expunction of Central Registries and Reporting Records

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Right of the Reported Person to Review and Challenge Records
Rev. Stat. § 8-811

The Department of Economic Security shall notify a person who is alleged to have abused or neglected a child that the department intends to substantiate the allegation in the central registry and of that person's right:

  • To receive a copy of the report containing the allegation
  • To a hearing before the entry into the central registry

If a request for a hearing is made, the department shall conduct a review before the hearing. The department shall provide an opportunity for the accused person to provide information to support the position that the department should not substantiate the allegation. If the department determines that there is no probable cause that the accused person engaged in the alleged conduct, the department shall amend the information or finding in the report and shall notify the person and a hearing shall not be held.

The notification shall also state that if the department does not amend the information or finding in the report within 60 days after it receives the request for a hearing, the person has a right to a hearing unless:

  • The person is a party in a civil, criminal, or administrative proceeding in which the allegations of abuse or neglect are at issue.
  • A court or administrative law judge has made findings as to the alleged abuse or neglect.
  • A court has found, pursuant to § 8-844(C), that a child is dependent based upon an allegation of abuse or neglect.

If the department does not amend the report, the department shall notify the office of administrative hearings of the request for a hearing no later than 5 days after completion of the review. The department shall forward all records, reports, and other relevant information with the request for a hearing within 10 days. The office of administrative hearings shall hold a hearing, with the following exceptions:

  • A child who is the victim of or a witness to abuse or neglect is not required to testify at the hearing.
  • A child's hearsay statement is admissible if the time, content, and circumstances of that statement are sufficiently indicative of its reliability.
  • The identity of the reporting source of the abuse or neglect shall not be disclosed without the permission of the reporting source.
  • The reporting source is not required to testify.
  • A written statement from the reporting source may be admitted if the time, content, and circumstances of that statement are sufficiently indicative of its reliability.
  • If the person requesting the hearing fails to appear, the hearing shall be vacated and a substantiated finding of abuse or neglect entered. On good cause shown, the hearing may be rescheduled if the request is made within 15 days of the notice vacating the hearing for failure to appear.

On completion of the presentation of evidence, the administrative law judge shall determine if probable cause exists to sustain the department's finding that the parent, guardian, or custodian abused or neglected the child. If the judge determines that probable cause does not exist to sustain the department's finding, the judge shall order the department to amend the finding in the report.

When the department is requested to verify whether the central registry contains a substantiated report about a specific person, the department shall determine if the report was taken after January 1, 1998. If the report was taken after January 1, 1998, the department shall notify the requestor of the substantiated finding.

If the report was taken before January 1, 1998, the department shall notify the person of the person's right to request an administrative hearing. The department shall not send this notification if the person was a party in a civil, criminal, or administrative proceeding in which the allegations of abuse or neglect were at issue.
When Records Must Be Expunged
Rev. Stat. § 8-804

If the Department of Economic Security received a report before September 1, 1999, and determined that the report was substantiated, the department shall maintain the report in the central registry until 18 years from the child victim's date of birth.

If the department received a report on or after September 1, 1999, and determined that the report was substantiated, the department shall maintain the report in the central registry for 25 years after the date of the report.

The department shall annually purge reports and investigative outcomes received pursuant to the timeframes prescribed above.

Any person who was the subject of a child protective services investigation may request confirmation that the department has purged information about the person from the central registry. On receipt of this request, the department shall provide the person with written confirmation that the department has no record containing identifying information about that person.

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Child Welfare

Case Planning for Families Involved With Child Welfare Agencies

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When Case Plans Are Required
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-806; Children's Services Manual, Ch. 9, § 1
When a child has been accepted into a voluntary placement, the department must develop a case plan within 10 days.

In regulation: Every child and family receiving ongoing services from the Department of Children, Youth, and Families shall have an individualized family-centered case plan, consistent with the requirements of Federal and State law. The department shall conduct a case plan staffing within 60 days of case opening for all cases open for more than 60 days or within 10 working days of a child's placement into voluntary foster care.
Who May Participate in the Case Planning Process
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-806; Children's Services Manual, Ch. 9, § 1
The department must develop a case plan with the child's parent, guardian, or custodian.

In regulation: The department shall encourage the participation of parents, children, out-of-home care providers, and when appropriate, extended family members in the case planning process.

All members of the service team shall be invited to participate in the case plan staffing. Parents, children age 12 or older, and out-of-home care providers shall be members of the service team. To every extent possible, and when appropriate, extended family members may also participate as members of the service team.
Contents of a Case Plan
Rev. Stat. § 8-806; Children's Services Manual, Ch. 9, § 1

The case plan shall establish the services necessary to promote the safety of the child on the planned return of the child to the parent, guardian, custodian, or alternative placement.

In regulation: The family-centered case plan shall be a discrete document that includes the following components:

  • The child's safety plan, specifying ongoing actions that will be taken to ensure the child's continued safety at home and demonstrating that the child's health and safety are of paramount concern
  • The permanency goal for the child, and expected date of achievement
  • The family intervention plan specifying for all parents (whose parental rights have not been terminated) and guardians the kinds of services and supports that will be offered to the family in order to achieve the case plan permanency goal
  • The out-of-home care plan, specifying for every child in out-of-home care the most recent information available regarding:
    • The child's special needs
    • The name and address of the child's school
    • The child's educational status
    • How the placement type meets those needs
    • Services provided to the child
    • Services provided to the caregiver to help meet the child's needs
    • Actions the CPS Specialist will take to ensure safety in the out-of-home setting
    • When applicable, tasks and services to achieve a concurrent permanency goal or a permanency goal other than family reunification
    • For any child placed substantially distant from the parent's home or out-of-State, the reason the placement is in the best interests of the child
  • The health-care plan, specifying for each child the most recent information available regarding the child's health status
  • The contact and visitation plan, specifying for every child in out-of-home care the plan for frequent and consistent visitation between the child and the child's parents, siblings, family members, other relatives, friends, and any former (family) resource family, especially those with whom the child has developed a strong attachment
  • Specific documentation of how the family and other team members actively participated in the development of the plan

Permanency goal options include reunification, adoption, legal guardianship, and another planned living arrangement. A concurrent permanency plan is included for children who have been assessed as unlikely to reunify with their parent within 12 months of the child's initial removal.

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Concurrent Planning for Permanency for Children

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Citation: Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 8-845(D) (LexisNexis through 2012 2nd Reg. Sess.)
Statute Text:

Notwithstanding § 8-845(C) [that requires the court to reunify the family if possible], reasonable efforts to place a child for adoption may be made concurrently with reasonable efforts to reunify the family.

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Court Hearings for the Permanent Placement of Children

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Schedule of Hearings
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-847; 8-862
After the disposition hearing, the court shall hold periodic review hearings at least once every 6 months as required by Federal law.

The court shall hold a permanency hearing to determine the future permanent legal status of the child:

  • Within 30 days after the disposition hearing if the court does not order reunification services
  • Within 6 months after a child who is under age 3 is removed from the child's home
  • In all other cases, within 12 months after the child is removed from the child's home

If the court determines that the child should remain in out-of-home placement longer than 18 months from the date of the permanency order, the court shall conduct a review of the order at least once each year. After reviewing the order, the court may reaffirm the order or direct other disposition of the child.
Persons Entitled to Attend Hearings
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-847
The following persons shall be provided notice of the review and the right to participate in the proceeding:

  • The agency charged with the child's care and custody
  • Any foster parents in whose home the child resided within the last 6 months
  • A shelter care facility or receiving foster home where the child resides or has resided within the last 6 months for more than 30 days
  • The child's parent or guardian, unless the parental rights of that parent or guardian have been terminated
  • The child, if age 12 or older
  • The child's relative, if the relative files a written notice of right of participation with the court
  • A person permitted by the court to intervene as a party in the dependency proceeding
  • A physical custodian of the child within the preceding 6 months
  • Any person who has filed a petition to adopt or who has physical custody pursuant to a foster-adoptive placement
  • Any other person as the court may direct

Determinations Made at Hearings
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-845; 8-862
In reviewing the status of the child, the court shall consider the health and safety of the child as a paramount concern and the following criteria:
  • The goals of the placement and the appropriateness of the case plan
  • The services that have been offered to reunite the family
  • If returning the child home is not likely, the efforts that have been or should be made to evaluate or plan for other permanent placement plans
  • The efforts that have been made or should be made to place the child with the child's siblings or to provide frequent visitation or contact when placement with siblings has not been possible

The court shall review the permanent plan that has been established for the child. In reviewing the status of the child, the court, insofar as possible, shall seek to reunite the family. If the court does not order reunification of the family, the court shall order a plan of adoption or another permanent plan that is in the child's best interests and that takes into consideration the placement of the child with siblings or that provides for frequent visitation or contact among siblings unless the court determines that either the placement with the siblings or the visitation or contact would be contrary to the child's or a sibling's safety or well-being.

At the permanency hearing, the court shall determine:

  • Whether termination of parental rights, adoption, permanent guardianship, or some other permanent legal status is the most appropriate plan for the child
  • Whether reasonable efforts have been made to finalize the permanency plan in effect
  • What efforts have been made in the permanency plan to place the child with the child's siblings or to provide frequent visitation or contact, unless the court had already determined that placement with all or any siblings or visitation or contact is not possible or would be contrary to the child's or a sibling's safety or well-being

Permanency Options
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-845; 8-862
The court may order any of the following:
  • Return to the child's parent
  • Placement with a grandparent or other member of the child's extended family, including a person who has a significant relationship with the child, unless the court determines that such placement is not in the child's best interests
  • Adoption
  • Placement with a suitable institution, association, or school
  • Independent living
  • Placement with any adult as a permanent guardian

For the purposes of this subsection, a prospective permanent placement includes:

  • A grandparent or another member of the child's extended family including a person who has a significant relationship with the child
  • A person or persons with an expressed interest in being the permanent placement for the child in a certified adoptive home where the child resides, a home that is a permanent placement for a sibling of the child, or a licensed family foster home where the child resides

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Criminal Background Checks for Prospective Foster and Adoptive Parents

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Requirements for Foster Parents
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-509; 41-1758.07
The division shall not issue a license unless each foster parent and each other adult member of the household has a valid fingerprint clearance card issued pursuant to § 41-1758.07. The foster parent and each adult member of the household must certify on forms provided by the division and notarized whether the foster parent or other adult members of the household are awaiting trial or have ever been convicted of any of the criminal offenses listed in § 41-1758.07(B)-(C) in this State or similar offenses in another State or jurisdiction, including:

  • Sexual abuse, exploitation, or molestation of a child or vulnerable adult
  • Incest
  • Homicide, including murder, manslaughter, and negligent homicide
  • Sexual assault
  • Child prostitution
  • Child abuse or felony child neglect
  • Sexual conduct with a minor
  • Dangerous crimes against children
  • Exploitation of minors involving drug offenses
  • Taking a child for the purpose of prostitution
  • Abuse or neglect of a vulnerable adult
  • Production, publication, sale, possession, and presentation of obscene items
  • Furnishing harmful items to minors
  • Furnishing harmful items to minors by Internet activity
  • Obscene or indecent telephone communications to minors for commercial purposes
  • Pandering
  • Transporting persons for the purpose of prostitution, polygamy, and concubinage
  • Any felony offense involving contributing to the delinquency of a minor
  • Unlawful sale or purchase of children
  • Child bigamy
  • Any felony offense involving domestic violence
  • Felony drug- or alcohol-related offenses if committed within the past 5 years
  • Felony indecent exposure
  • Terrorism

Requirements for Adoptive Parents
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-105(D) & (E); 8-112(B)(6) & (7)
A fingerprint-based Federal and State criminal records check is required for a prospective adoptive parent and any adult household members, except a birth or legal parent with custody of the child, as part of the investigation for preadoption certification.

The prospective adoptive parent must certify on forms that are provided by the division and notarized whether the prospective adoptive parent is awaiting trial on or has ever been convicted of any of the criminal offenses listed in § 41-1758.07(B)-(C) [see above] in this State or similar offenses in another State or jurisdiction.

A central registry records check, including any history of child welfare referrals, is required for a prospective adoptive parent and each adult who is living permanently with the prospective adoptive parent as part of the court's social study.

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Determining the Best Interests of the Child

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Citation: Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 8-845(B) (LexisNexis through 2012 2nd Reg. Sess.)
Statute Text:

In reviewing the status of the child and in determining its order of disposition, the court shall consider the health and safety of the child as a paramount concern.

Citation: Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 8-847(D) (LexisNexis through 2012 2nd Reg. Sess.)
Statute Text:

At any periodic review hearing, the court shall consider the health and safety of the child as a paramount concern.

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Grounds for Involuntary Termination of Parental Rights

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Circumstances That Are Grounds for Termination of Parental Rights
Rev. Stat. § 8-533

Grounds to terminate the parent-child relationship shall include any of the following, with due consideration for the best interests of the child:

  • The parent has abandoned the child.
  • The parent has neglected or willfully abused a child.
  • The parent is unable to discharge parental responsibilities because of mental illness, mental deficiency, or a history of chronic abuse of dangerous drugs or alcohol, and there are reasonable grounds to believe that the condition will continue for a prolonged period.
  • The parent has been convicted of a felony of such nature as to prove the unfitness of that parent, including murder or manslaughter of another child of the parent, or if the sentence of that parent is of such length that the child will be deprived of a normal home for a period of years.
  • The potential father failed to file a paternity action within 30 days of completion of service of notice as prescribed in § 8-106(G).
  • The putative father failed to file a notice of claim of paternity.
  • The parents have relinquished their rights to a child to an agency or have consented to the adoption.
  • The identity of the parent is unknown and continues to be unknown following 3 months of diligent efforts to identify and locate the parent.
  • The parent has had parental rights to another child terminated within the preceding 2 years for the same cause and is currently unable to discharge parental responsibilities due to the same cause.

The following may also be grounds for termination of parental rights:

  • The child is being cared for in an out-of-home placement, the agency responsible for the child's care has made a diligent effort to provide appropriate reunification services, and one of the following circumstances exists:
    • The child has been in an out-of-home placement for a cumulative total period of 9 months or longer, and the parent has substantially neglected or willfully refused to remedy the circumstances that cause the child to be in an out-of-home placement.
    • The child who is under age 3 has been in an out-of-home placement for a cumulative total period of 6 months or longer, and the parent has substantially neglected or willfully refused to remedy the circumstances that cause the child to be in an out-of-home placement, including refusal to participate in reunification services offered by the department.
    • The child has been in an out-of-home placement for a cumulative total period of 15 months, the parent has been unable to remedy the circumstances that cause the child to be in an out-of-home placement, and there is a substantial likelihood that the parent will not be capable of exercising proper and effective parental care and control in the near future.
  • All of the following are true:
    • The child was cared for in an out-of-home placement pursuant to court order.
    • The agency responsible for the care of the child made diligent efforts to provide appropriate reunification services.
    • The child was returned to the legal custody of the parent from whom the child had been removed.
    • Within 18 months after the child was returned, the child was removed from that parent's legal custody, the child is being cared for in an out-of-home placement, and the parent is currently unable to discharge parental responsibilities.

The failure of an alleged parent who is not the child's legal parent to take a test requested by the department or ordered by the court to determine if the person is the child's natural parent is prima facie evidence of abandonment unless good cause is shown by the alleged parent for that failure.
Circumstances That Are Exceptions to Termination of Parental Rights
This issue is not addressed in the statutes reviewed.
Circumstances Allowing Reinstatement of Parental Rights
This issue is not addressed in the statutes reviewed.

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Home Study Requirements for Prospective Foster Parents

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Who May Apply
Citation: Admin. Code R6-5-5823; R6-5-5824
To qualify for and maintain licensure as a foster parent, a person shall meet the following criteria:

  • The person shall be at least age 21 at the time of application.
  • The person shall have sufficient income to meet the needs of his or her own household.
  • The applicant and adult household members shall be free of conviction, indictment for, or involvement in the criminal offenses listed in R6-5-5802(C).
  • The applicant and household members shall not have any physical or mental health conditions that preclude compliance with foster care requirements.
  • An applicant's household members shall agree to and support the decision to provide foster care.

To qualify for and maintain licensure as a foster parent, a person shall be a responsible, stable, emotionally mature individual who can exercise sound judgment. A person shall demonstrate the following characteristics:

  • The ability to realistically determine which foster children the person can accept and successfully integrate into his or her family
  • Knowledge of child development, nutrition, and health
  • The willingness and ability to protect children from harm
  • Knowledge and understanding of children
  • The capacity to give and receive affection and enjoyment in being a parent
  • Flexibility in expectations, attitudes, behavior, and use of help when it is needed
  • The ability to deal with separation, loss, frustration, and conflict
  • The capacity to respect persons with differing life styles and philosophies and persons of different races, cultures, and religious beliefs
  • The ability to accept a foster child's relationship with the child's parent and birth family
  • The willingness and ability to commit the time necessary to provide a foster child with supervision and guidance in accordance with a foster child's individual needs

Training Requirements
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-509; Admin. Code R6-5-5825
The foster parent or parents are required to complete 6 actual hours of approved initial foster parent training. For license renewal, the foster parent or parents must complete 6 actual hours of approved ongoing foster parent training.

In regulation: Before receiving an initial license, an applicant shall complete at least 12 clock hours of initial foster parent training. The training shall cover at least the following subjects:

  • Characteristics and needs of foster children
  • The role of the foster parent as a member of the care and treatment team
  • The importance of birth parent and family involvement in a child's life
  • Methods for appropriately addressing the child's cultural, ethnic, and religious needs
  • Attachment, separation, and loss issues
  • Behavior management
  • Confidentiality
  • Emergency procedures
  • Available resources and support services
  • Foster care payment procedure
  • Agency contact persons and procedures
  • The impact of fostering on the foster parent and the foster parent's own family
  • Addressing the impacts of foster parenting
  • Specialized topics related to child welfare, health, growth, or development
  • The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978

Each licensing year, prior to license renewal, a foster parent shall attend and complete at least 6 clock hours of ongoing training. Annual training may include:

  • Advanced training in the subjects listed above
  • Special subjects relating to child health, growth, or development, including:
    • Child management techniques based on the developmental needs of children in care
    • Discipline, crisis intervention, and behavior management techniques
  • Review of agency policies

Minimum Standards for Foster Homes
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-504; Admin. Code R6-5-5838; R6-5-5842; R6-5-5843
The division shall visit each foster home and inspect the premises used for care of children for sanitation, fire, and other actual and potential hazards.

In regulation: The foster home parent shall:

  • Keep the foster home safe, in good repair, and sanitary
  • Keep the outside area around the foster home free from objects, materials, and conditions that constitute a danger to the occupants

If the foster parent provides care to a child with special physical needs, the foster parent shall equip the foster home with any equipment needed to accommodate the particular child's special needs.

A foster parent shall provide safe sleeping arrangements that accommodate the privacy needs of a foster child.

  • The foster family and a foster child shall sleep in bedrooms. An unfinished attic, a basement area, or a space normally and primarily used for passageways and purposes other than sleeping are not bedrooms.
  • A bedroom in the foster home shall have a finished ceiling, floor-to-ceiling permanently affixed walls, a door, finished flooring, light, ventilation, and a usable exit to the outdoors.
  • A foster parent shall provide each foster child with a bed. The bed shall be appropriate to a child's age and needs.
  • A foster parent shall not allow a foster child who is age 6 or older to share a bedroom with a child of the opposite gender.
  • Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a foster child who is a minor parent may share a room with her own child.

A foster home shall have at least one toilet, one washbasin, and one bathtub or shower. A foster home bathroom shall have interior plumbing with both warm and cold water.
Approval Process
Citation: Admin. Code R6-5-5802
An application shall include:

  • Personally identifying information on the applicant, all household members, and children who do not live with the applicant
  • The applicant's financial assets, obligations, and income
  • Medical statements for the applicant and any adult household member
  • Immunization records for each child household member
  • Employment information
  • Family relationships and support systems
  • A description of daily routines, activities, and hobbies
  • A description of any spiritual or religious beliefs and practices observed in the applicant's home
  • Information on administrative or judicial proceedings in which the applicant has been or is a party
  • The name, address, and telephone number of at least five references who can attest to the applicant's character and ability to care for children
  • A description of the applicant's home and neighborhood
  • A statement as to the number and characteristics of foster children the applicant would consider for placement
  • A description of the applicant's prior experience, if any, as a foster parent
  • A description of the applicant's prior history of adoption certification, if any
  • A description of the applicant's child care experience and child-rearing practices
  • A statement regarding the applicant's motivation for becoming a foster parent
  • A statement describing how all other household members feel about the decision to foster children
  • A statement authorizing the licensing agency to:
    • Verify the information contained in the application
    • Perform background checks on the applicant and the applicant's household members
    • Conduct a health and safety inspection of the applicant's home

Grounds for Withholding Approval
Citation: Admin Code. R6-5-5819; R6-6-5802(C)
A license may be denied when an applicant:
  • Is not in compliance with foster care requirements
  • Fails to provide information required by these rules
  • Misrepresents or fails to disclose material information regarding qualifications or experience
  • Is unable to meet the physical, emotional, social, educational, or psychological needs of children

A license shall be denied when an applicant or household member has been convicted of the criminal offenses listed below. A license may be denied if the applicant or household member is a person who has a record of substantiated or undetermined child maltreatment in this State or any other jurisdiction.

The applicant and all adult household members shall submit to fingerprinting and a criminal history check. On a form provided by the department, the applicant and each adult household member shall certify whether he or she has ever committed of any of the following criminal offenses:

  • Sexual abuse of a minor or vulnerable adult
  • Incest
  • Murder, voluntary manslaughter, kidnapping, or arson
  • Sexual assault
  • Sexual exploitation of a minor or vulnerable adult
  • Felony offenses within the previous 10 years involving the manufacture or distribution of marijuana or dangerous or narcotic drugs
  • Robbery or theft
  • A dangerous crime against children as defined in § 13-604.01
  • Child abuse or neglect or abuse or neglect of a vulnerable adult
  • Sexual conduct with a minor
  • Molestation of a child or vulnerable adult
  • Aggravated assault
  • Contributing to the delinquency of a minor

Kinship Foster Care
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-514.03
The department shall establish kinship foster care services for a child who has been removed from the child's home and is in the custody of the department. The program shall promote the placement of the child with the child's relative for kinship foster care.

A kinship foster care parent applicant who is not a licensed foster care parent shall be at least age 18. The applicant and each member of the applicant's household who is at least age 18 shall submit a full set of fingerprints to the department for the purpose of obtaining a State and Federal criminal records check. The Department of Public Safety may exchange this fingerprint data with the FBI. The department shall determine if the applicant is able to meet the child's health and safety needs by conducting one or more home visits and interviewing the applicant. The department may interview other household members, review the applicant's personal and professional references, and conduct Child Protective Services central registry checks.
Foster to Adopt
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-112(E); Admin. Code R6-5-6620
If the child being considered for adoption has resided with the prospective adoptive parent for at least 6 months and the prospective adoptive parent is a foster parent who is licensed by this State, the social study may consist only of the following:

  • The results of the central registry records check
  • A review of any material changes in circumstances that have occurred since the previous license renewal that affect the prospective adoptive parent's ability to adopt the child or for the child to be placed in the prospective adoptive parent's home

In regulation: When a foster parent plans to adopt a foster child who is age 5 or older, a case worker from the adoption entity shall privately interview the child and all members of the adoptive family household who are age 5 or older about their feelings toward the adoption, before the adoption consent is signed.

When a child is placed for adoption with a person who has been a foster parent to the child, a case manager from the adoption entity shall conduct home visits at least every 2 months from the time legal consent for adoption has been signed until the finalization of adoption. If the adoptive child is a child with special needs, the case manager shall visit at least once a month.
Interjurisdictional Approval
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-548; Admin. Code R6-5-8008
Placements of children in or from another State are subject to the provisions of the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children.

In regulation: Approval must be obtained from the Compact Administrators in both the sending and receiving States prior to the placement of a child in another compact member State.
Links to Resources
Arizona Department of Economic Security, Division of Children, Youth and Families, 'Steps To Become a Foster or Adoptive Parent'

State regulations full text (PDF- 133 KB)

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Infant Safe Haven Laws

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Infant's Age
Rev. Stat. § 13-3623.01
A newborn infant may be relinquished. The term 'newborn infant' means an infant who is 72 hours old or younger.
Who May Relinquish the Infant
Rev. Stat. § 13-3623.01
The child may be relinquished by the parent or an agent of the parent.
Who May Receive the Infant
Rev. Stat. § 13-3623.01
The child may be left with a designated safe haven provider. A safe haven provider includes any of the following:

  • A firefighter who is on duty
  • An emergency medical technician who is on duty
  • A medical staff member at a general hospital or a rural general hospital
  • A staff member or volunteer at any of the following organizations that posts a public notice that it is willing to accept a newborn infant:
    • A licensed private child welfare agency
    • A licensed adoption agency
    • A church

Responsibilities of the Safe Haven Provider
Rev. Stat. §§ 13-3623.01; 8-528
If a parent or an agent of a parent voluntarily delivers the parent's newborn infant to a safe haven provider, the safe haven provider shall take custody of the newborn infant if both of the following are true:
  • The parent did not express an intent to return for the newborn infant.
  • The safe haven provider reasonably believes that the child is a newborn infant.

The safe haven provider shall immediately transport the infant to a hospital for a physical examination.

If the infant is left with a private child welfare or adoption agency and the agency has the ability to place the infant for adoption, the agency shall inform child protective services that it will take custody of the infant within 24 hours. If the agency cannot place the infant for adoption, it shall inform child protective services that it will not take custody of the infant.

If an infant is left with a church and the church is affiliated with a private adoption agency, the provider must immediately inform child protective services that an infant has been left at the church, the location of the hospital where the church transported the infant, and whether a private adoption agency will take custody of the infant.

If the church is not affiliated with a private adoption agency or the agency cannot place the infant for adoption, child protective services shall contact the next private adoption agency on its rotating list of agencies until it contacts an agency that agrees to take custody of the infant. The adoption agency must take custody of the infant from the hospital within 24 hours.

If an infant is left with a firefighter, emergency medical technician, or a hospital staff member, the safe haven provider shall immediately contact child protective services to inform it that an infant has been left and of the location of the hospital where the safe haven provider transported the infant.
Immunity for the Provider
Rev. Stat. § 13-3623.01
A safe haven provider who receives a newborn infant is not liable for any civil or other damages for any act or omission by the safe haven provider in maintaining custody of the newborn infant if the safe haven provider acts in good faith without gross negligence.
Protection for Relinquishing Parent
Rev. Stat. § 13-3623.01
A person is not guilty of abuse of a child solely for leaving an unharmed newborn infant with a safe haven provider.

A parent or agent of a parent who leaves a newborn infant with a safe haven provider may remain anonymous, and the safe haven provider shall not require the parent or agent to answer any questions.
Effect on Parental Rights
This issue is not addressed in the statutes reviewed.

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Placement of Children With Relatives

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Relative Placement for Foster Care and Guardianship
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-501; 8-514.02; 8-514.03
The Department of Economic Security may place a child with a parent or relative. The term 'relative' means a grandparent, great-grandparent, brother or sister of whole-blood or half-blood, aunt, uncle, or first cousin.

The department shall establish kinship foster care services for a child who has been removed from the child's home and is in the custody of the department. The program shall promote the placement of the child with the child's relative for kinship foster care.
Requirements for Placement with Relatives
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-514.03
A kinship foster care parent applicant who is not a licensed foster care parent shall be at least age 18. The applicant and each member of the applicant's household who is at least age 18 shall submit a full set of fingerprints to the department for the purpose of obtaining a State and Federal criminal records check pursuant to § 41-1750 and Public Law 92-544. The Department of Public Safety may exchange this fingerprint data with the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

The Department of Economic Security shall determine if the applicant is able to meet the child's health and safety needs by conducting one or more home visits and interviewing the applicant.

The department may interview other household members, review the applicant's personal and professional references, and conduct Child Protective Services central registry checks.

A kinship foster care parent may be eligible to receive the following financial services for the child:

  • Full foster care benefits, including payment if the kinship foster care parent becomes a licensed foster care home
  • Temporary Assistance for Needy Families cash assistance payments for a child only for case and supplemental financial support

The department shall provide nonfinancial services for a kinship foster care parent through existing means or referral. Nonfinancial services may include:

  • Family assessment and case management
  • Child care
  • Housing search and relocation
  • Parenting skills training
  • Supportive intervention and guidance counseling
  • Transportation and emergency services
  • Parent aid and respite services
  • Additional services that the department determines are necessary to meet the needs of the child and family

Requirements for Placement of Siblings
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-513(D)
If a child has been removed from the child's home and placed in out-of-home placement, guardianship, or adoptive placement, the department shall make reasonable efforts to place that child with the child's siblings or, if that is not possible, to maintain frequent visits or other ongoing contact between the child and the child's siblings, unless a court determines that either the placement or the visits or contact would be contrary to the child's or a sibling's safety or well-being.
Relatives Who May Adopt
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-105; 8-108
A relative who may adopt the child includes an uncle, aunt, adult sibling, grandparent, or great-grandparent of the child by whole-blood or half-blood or by marriage.
Requirements for Adoption by Relatives
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-105; 8-108
Before any prospective adoptive parent may petition to adopt a child the person shall be certified by the court as acceptable to adopt children. A certificate shall be issued only after an investigation conducted by an officer of the court, by an agency, or by the division. This section does not apply if the prospective adoptive parent is the spouse of the birth or legal parent of the child to be adopted or is an uncle, aunt, adult sibling, grandparent, or great-grandparent of the child by whole-blood or half-blood or by marriage or adoption.

A person who is not currently certified as acceptable to adopt but who has custody of a child who the person intends to adopt shall petition the court for an order permitting that person to keep custody of the child pending certification. If the court permits the person to continue to have custody of the child, the court shall order the investigation to continue for preadoption certification and report as required by § 8-105.

A custody petition or hearing is not required if the person who intends to adopt the child is:

  • The spouse of a birth or legal parent of the child
  • An uncle, aunt, adult sibling, grandparent, or great-grandparent of the child by whole-blood or half-blood or by marriage

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Reasonable Efforts to Preserve or Reunify Families and Achieve Permanency for Children

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What Are Reasonable Efforts
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-801; 8-891
'In-home intervention' means a program of services provided pursuant to § 8-891 while the child is still in the custody of the parent, guardian, or custodian.

After a dependency petition is filed, the court may order in-home intervention if all of the following are true:

  • The child has not been removed from the home.
  • In-home intervention appears likely to resolve the risk issues described below.
  • The parent, guardian, or custodian agrees to a case plan and participation in services.
  • One of the following conditions exist:
    • The child is at risk of harm due to the inability or unwillingness of the parent, guardian, or custodian to provide food, clothing, shelter, or medical care.
    • The parent, guardian, or custodian is unable to provide proper care, control, and supervision of the child.

The in-home intervention order may include a training or treatment plan for the parent, guardian, or custodian and the child. The in-home intervention shall include a specific time for completion that shall not exceed 1 year without review and approval by the court.

The term 'protective services' is defined as a specialized child welfare program that is administered by the department to investigate allegations and seek to prevent, intervene in, and treat abuse and neglect to promote the well-being of the child in a permanent home and to coordinate services to strengthen the family.
When Reasonable Efforts Are Required
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-846
If the child has been removed from the home, the court shall order the protective services department to make reasonable efforts to provide services to the child and the child's family.
When Reasonable Efforts Are NOT Required
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-846
Reunification services are not required if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that one of the following aggravated circumstances exist:

  • The parent cannot be identified or located.
  • The parent suffers from a mental illness that will likely prevent the parent from resuming care of the child within 12 months.
  • The child previously was removed and adjudicated dependent due to physical or sexual abuse. After the adjudication, the child was returned to the custody of the parent and then subsequently removed within 18 months due to additional physical or sexual abuse.
  • The child has suffered severe physical or emotional injury by the parent or a person known to the parent.
  • A child was removed from the parent on at least two previous occasions, reunification services were offered or provided after the removal, and the parent is unable to discharge parental responsibilities.
  • The parent's rights to another child were terminated, and the conditions that led to the termination were not remedied.
  • The parent was convicted of murder, manslaughter, sexual abuse, sexual assault, molestation, or sexual exploitation of a child, or aiding or abetting any such crimes.

The court shall consider any criminal prosecution relating to the offenses that led to the child's removal from the home and any orders of the criminal court. Information may be provided by law enforcement or the county attorney.

If a dependency petition was filed pursuant to § 8-874(J), the court may direct the division not to provide reunification services to the child's parents unless the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that these services would be in the child's best interests.

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Standby Guardianship

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Who Can Nominate a Standby Guardian
Citation:
These issues are not addressed in statutes reviewed.
How to Establish a Standby Guardian
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.
How Standby Authority is Activated
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.
Involvement of the Noncustodial Parent
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.
Authority Relationship of the Parent and the Standby
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.
Withdrawing Guardianship
Not addressed in statutes reviewed.

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Adoption

Access to Adoption Records

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Who May Access Information
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-129
The following persons may have access to family information:

  • The adoptive parents or a guardian of the adopted person
  • The adopted person who is age 18 or older
  • If the adopted person has died, the adopted person's spouse if he or she is the legal parent of the adopted person's child or the guardian of any child of the adopted person
  • If the adopted person has died, any child of the adopted person who is age 18 or older
  • The birth parents or other birth children of the birth parents

Access to Nonidentifying Information
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-121; 8-129
Nonidentifying information may be released upon request to any of the persons listed above. Nonidentifying information may include the health and genetic history of the birth parents and members of the birth parents' families.
Mutual Access to Identifying Information
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-121
Court personnel, the division, an attorney assisting in a direct placement adoption, or an agency may provide partial or complete identifying information between a birth parent and adoptive parent when the parties mutually agree to share specific identifying information and make a written request to the court, the division, or the agency.

A person may petition the court to obtain information relating to an adoption in the possession of the court, the division, or any agency or attorney involved in the adoption. The court shall not release identifying information unless the person requesting the information has established a compelling need for disclosure or consent has been obtained.

An adopted person age 18 or older or a birth parent may file at any time with the court and the agency, division, or attorney who participated in the adoption a notarized statement granting consent, withholding consent, or withdrawing a consent previously given for the release of confidential information. If an adopted person who is 18 or older and the birth mother or birth father have filed consent to the release of confidential information, the court may disclose the information, except identifying information relating to a birth parent who did not grant written consent.
Access to Original Birth Certificate
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 36-337
The original birth certificate can be made available only upon a court order or as prescribed by rule.
Where the Information Can Be Located
Arizona Confidential Intermediary Program, Arizona Supreme Court

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Collection of Family Information About Adopted Persons and Their Birth Families

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Agency or Person Preparing the Report
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-129
The division, agency, or person placing the child shall compile the information.
Contents of Report About the Adopted Person
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-112
The social study shall include the social history, heritage, and mental and physical condition of the child and the child's birth parents.
Contents of Report About the Birth Family
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-129
The report shall contain detailed, written, nonidentifying information including a health and genetic history and all nonidentifying information about the birth parents or members of a birth parent's family.
When the Report Is Made
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-129
The report is compiled and provided to the prospective adoptive parents before the child is placed for adoption.
Exceptions for Stepparent or Relative Adoptions
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-112
A social study is not required if either of the following is true:

  • The prospective adoptive parent is the child's stepparent who has been legally married to the child's birth or legal parent for at least 1 year, and the child has resided with the stepparent and parent for at least 1 year.
  • The prospective adoptive parent is the child's adult sibling, by whole or half blood, or the child's aunt, uncle, grandparent, or great-grandparent, and the child has resided with the prospective adoptive parent for at least 1 year.

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Consent to Adoption

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Who Must Consent to an Adoption
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-106(A), (C)

The court shall not grant an adoption of a child unless consent to adopt has been obtained and filed with the court from the following:

  • The birth or adoptive mother
  • The father if he:
    • Was married to the mother at the time of conception
    • Is the adoptive father
    • Has otherwise established paternity
  • Any guardian of the child or agency that has been given the child to place for adoption
  • The guardian of an adult parent if one has been appointed

Minority of the parent does not affect competency to consent.
Consent of Child Being Adopted
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-106(A)

A child age 12 or older must consent to the adoption in open court.
When Parental Consent is not Needed
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-106(B), (J)

It is not necessary for a person to obtain consent to adopt from the following:

  • An adult parent for whom a guardian is currently appointed
  • A parent whose parental rights have been terminated by court order
  • A parent who has previously consented to an agency's or the division's placement of the child for adoption

A potential father who fails to file a paternity action and who does not comply with all applicable service requirements within 30 days after completion of service of notice waives his right to be notified of any judicial hearing regarding the child's adoption or the termination of parental rights, and his consent to the adoption or termination is not required.
When Consent Can Be Executed
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-107(B)

Any consent given sooner than 72 hours after the birth of the child is invalid.
How Consent Must Be Executed
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-107(A), (D), (G)

All consents to adoption shall be in writing and signed by the person giving the consent and witnessed by two or more credible witnesses who are at least age 18 and who subscribe their names in the presence of the person giving the consent or shall be acknowledged by the person giving consent before a notary public.

The consent shall designate either of the following:

  • An agency or the division as authorized by the party giving the consent to place the child for adoption
  • The particular person or persons authorized to adopt the child by the person giving the consent

A consent other than to any agency or the division that does not designate a particular person or persons, or that purports to permit a third person to locate or nominate an adoptive parent, is invalid.
Revocation of Consent
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-106(D)

Consent is irrevocable unless obtained by fraud, duress, or undue influence.

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Court Jurisdiction and Venue for Adoption Petitions

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Jurisdiction
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-102.01
If a petition for adoption is filed prior to a child's 18th birthday, jurisdiction of the superior court continues for purposes of entering an order of adoption of such child even if the child becomes age 18 prior to the final adoption hearing.
Venue
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-104
The adoption petition may be filed in the court of the county in which one of the following applies:

  • The prospective adoptive parents reside.
  • The child is a ward, i.e., in the care of a governmental agency.

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Home Study Requirements for Prospective Parents in Domestic Adoption

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Who Must Be Studied
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-105
The prospective adoptive parents and any adult members of the adoptive parents' household must be included in the study.
Agency or Person Conducting the Study
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-105
The study and report are completed by the division or agency, or a person or agency designated by the court.
Qualifications for Adoptive Parents
Citation: Admin. Code § R6-5-6603
Prior to accepting a certification application from a person contemplating adoption of a child, or an application for placement from a person who intends to seek a placement through the entity, an adoption entity shall provide the person with adoption orientation.
Elements of a Home Study
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-105; 8-112
The application for certification shall include a financial statement and a physician's statement of the applicant's physical health. An investigation of the prospective adoptive parents shall be conducted to determine whether they are fit and proper persons to adopt children.

The prospective adoptive parent and each adult member of the household must certify whether that person is awaiting trial on or has ever been convicted of any of the criminal offenses listed in § 41-1758.07(B)-(C). An officer of the court may obtain a State and Federal criminal records check.

The investigation and report to the court shall consider all relevant and material facts dealing with the prospective adoptive parents' fitness to adopt children and shall include:

  • A complete social history
  • The financial condition of the applicant
  • The moral fitness of the applicant
  • The religious background of the applicant
  • Physical and mental health conditions of the applicant
  • Any court action for or adjudication of child abuse, abandonment of children, dependency or termination of parent-child relationship
  • All other facts bearing on the issue of the fitness of the prospective adoptive parents

A social study shall be submitted to the court 10 days before the hearing on the petition to adopt. The social study shall include the following:

  • The child's adjustment to the adoptive parent(s)' home
  • The prospective adoptive parent's suitability to adopt
  • The existing and proposed arrangements regarding the child's custody
  • State and Federal criminal records checks and a central registry records check, including any history of child welfare referrals, of the prospective adoptive parent and each adult who is living permanently with the prospective adoptive parent
  • Any other information that is pertinent to the adoption proceedings

Grounds for Withholding Approval
Citation: Admin. Code § R6-5-6606
In determining whether to recommend certification of an applicant, the adoption entity shall consider all factors bearing on fitness to adopt, including, but not limited to:
  • The length and stability of the applicant's marital relationship, if applicable
  • The applicant's age and health
  • Past, significant disturbances or events in the applicant's immediate family, such as involuntary job separation; divorce; or death of spouse, child, or parent; and history of child maltreatment
  • The applicant's ability to financially provide for an adoptee
  • The applicant's history of providing financial support to the applicant's other children, including compliance with court-ordered child support obligations

The certification report shall specifically note any instances in which an applicant has:

  • Been charged with, been convicted of, pled no contest to, or is awaiting trial on charges of an offense listed in Rev. Stat. § 46-141
  • Lost care, custody, control, or parental rights to a child as a result of a dependency action or action to terminate parental rights

If the report recommends denial of certification, the adoption entity shall send the applicant written notice of the unfavorable recommendation and an explanation of the applicant's right to petition the court for review.
When Studies Must Be Completed
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-105
Before any prospective adoptive parent may petition to adopt a child, the person shall be certified by the court as acceptable to adopt children. A certificate shall be issued only after an investigation. The investigation and report to the court must be completed within 90 days after the application for certification has been accepted.

Within 60 days after receiving the investigation report, the court shall certify the applicant as acceptable or unacceptable to adopt children based on the investigation report and recommendations of the report. A certification remains in effect for 18 months from the date of its issuance and may be extended for additional 1-year periods if after review the court finds that there have been no material changes in circumstances that would adversely affect the acceptability of the applicant to adopt.
Postplacement Study Requirements
Citation: Admin. Code § R6-5-6619
When a child is placed for adoption with a person who is not the child's foster parent, a case manager from the adoption entity shall visit the home within 30 calendar days of placement to:

  • Ensure that the adoptive parent received all available nonidentifying information on the child
  • Address any questions or concerns the adoptive parent or child may have about the adoption process or placement
  • Ensure that the family has addressed the educational needs of a school-age child
  • Ensure that an adoptive parent who works has made appropriate child care arrangements

Following the initial placement visit, a case manager shall:

  • Visit the adoptive family at least once every 3 months until the adoption is finalized, except when the adoptive child is a child with special needs the visits shall occur at least once a month
  • Interview all members of the adoptive family's household
  • Discuss the following issues with the adoptive parent if appropriate in light of the child's age and development:
    • How the presence of the child has changed familial relationships
    • How the child and the extended family view each other
    • The role each family member has assumed regarding child care and discipline
    • How the parent is coping with the needs and demands of the placed child
    • How the child challenges or tests the placement and how the family reacts to these episodes, including any feelings of insecurity about the propriety of the family members' response
    • How the family perceives the child's sense of identity and the need to fill in gaps in the child's history
    • How the child has adjusted to the school environment
  • If developmentally appropriate, privately interview the child about the child's feelings about the adoption and the matters listed above

Exceptions for Stepparent or Relative Adoptions
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-105; 8-112
The requirements for a certification study do not apply if:
  • The prospective adoptive parent is the spouse of the birth or legal parent of the child to be adopted or is an uncle, aunt, adult sibling, grandparent, or great-grandparent of the child by whole or half-blood, or by marriage or adoption.
  • The birth or legal parent is deceased, but at the time of death, the parent had legal and physical custody of the child to be adopted, and the child had resided primarily with the spouse of the birth or legal parent during the 24 months before the death of the parent.
  • The grandparent, great-grandparent, aunt, adult sibling, or uncle is deceased, but at the time of death that person had legal and physical custody of the child to be adopted, and the child had resided primarily with the spouse of the grandparent, great-grandparent, aunt, adult sibling, or uncle during the 24 months before the death of the grandparent, great-grandparent, aunt, adult sibling, or uncle.

The social study may consist only of the results of the State and Federal criminal records check and the central registry records check if either of the following is true:

  • The prospective adoptive parent is the child's stepparent who has been legally married to the child's birth or legal parent for at least 1 year, and the child has resided with the stepparent and parent for at least 1 year.
  • The prospective adoptive parent is the child's adult sibling, by whole or half blood, or the child's aunt, uncle, grandparent, or great-grandparent, and the child has resided with the prospective adoptive parent for at least 1 year.

Requirements for Interjurisdictional Placements
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-548
Placements of children for adoption in or from another State are subject to the provisions of the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children.
Foster to Adopt Placements
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-112; Admin. Code § R6-5-6620
If the child being considered for adoption has resided with the prospective adoptive parent for at least 6 months, and the prospective adoptive parent is a foster parent who is licensed by this State, the social study may consist only of the following:
  • The results of a central registry records check
  • A review of any material changes in circumstances that have occurred since the previous license renewal that affect the prospective adoptive parent(s)' ability to adopt the child

In regulation: When a foster parent plans to adopt a foster child who is age 5 or older, a case worker from the adoption entity shall privately interview the child and all members of the adoptive family household who are age 5 or older about their feelings toward the adoption before the adoption consent is signed.

When a child is placed for adoption with a person who has been a foster parent to the child, a case manager from the adoption entity shall conduct home visits at least every 2 months from the time legal consent for adoption has been signed until the finalization of adoption. If the adoptive child is a child with special needs, the case manager shall visit at least once a month.
Links to Resources
Arizona Department of Economic Security, Division of Children, Youth and Families, 'Steps to Become a Foster or Adoptive Parent'

State regulations full text (PDF - 44 KB)

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Intestate Inheritance Rights for Adopted Children

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Birth Parents in Relation to Adopted Person
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-117; 14-2114
The relationship of birth parent and adopted person is completely severed upon entry of the adoption decree, and all legal consequences of the relationship cease to exist, including the right of inheritance.

Adoption of a child by the spouse of either birth parent has no effect on the relationship between the child and that birth parent or on the right of the child or a descendant of the child to inherit from or through the other birth parent.
Adoptive Parents in Relation to Adopted Person
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-117
The adopted person is entitled to inherit from and through the adoptive parent, and the adoptive parent is entitled to the same from the adopted person, as though the child were born to the adoptive parents in lawful wedlock.
Adopted Persons Who Are Not Included in a Will
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 14-2705; 14-2302
A person who is adopted and that person's descendants, if appropriate to the class, are included in class gifts and other terms of relationship in accordance with intestate succession.

If a testator fails to provide by will for a child who is adopted after the testator executes the will, the omitted child receives a share in the estate as follows:

  • If the testator had no child living when the testator executed the will, an omitted child receives a share in the estate equal in value to what the child would have received if the testator had died intestate, unless the will devised all or substantially all of the estate to the other parent of the omitted child and that other parent survives the testator and is entitled to take under the will.
  • If the testator had one or more children living when the testator executed the will and the will devised property or an interest in property to one or more of the then-living children, an omitted child is entitled to share in the testator's estate as follows:
    • The portion of the testator's estate in which the omitted child is entitled to share is limited to bequests made to the testator's then-living children under the will.
    • The share of the testator's estate that the child would have received if the testator had included all omitted children with the children to whom devises were made under the will and had given an equal share of the estate to each child.

However, if it appears from the will that the omission was intentional or that the testator provided for the omitted child by transfer outside the will and the intent that the transfer be in lieu of a testamentary provision is shown by the testator's statements or can be reasonably inferred from the amount of the transfer or other evidence, no share in the estate will be received.

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Postadoption Contact Agreements Between Birth and Adoptive Families

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What may be included in postadoption contact agreements?
Citation: Rev. Stat. Ann. § 8-116.01
The parties to a proceeding under this chapter may enter into an agreement regarding communication with an adopted child, the adoptive parents, and a birth parent.

The agreement shall state that the adoptive parent may terminate contact between the birth parent and the adopted child at any time if the adoptive parent believes that this contact is not in the child's best interests.

The agreement shall contain a clause stating that the parties agree to the continuing jurisdiction of the court to enforce and modify the agreement and that they understand that failure to comply with the agreement is not grounds for setting aside an adoption decree or for revocation of a written consent to an adoption or relinquishment of parental rights.
Who may be a party to a postadoption contact agreement?
Citation: Rev. Stat. Ann. § 8-116.01
The court shall not approve an agreement unless the agreement is approved by the prospective adoptive parents, any birth parent with whom the agreement is being made, and if the child is in the custody of the division or an agency, a representative of the division or agency.
What is the role of the court in postadoption contact agreements?
Citation: Rev. Stat. Ann. § 8-116.01
The court shall not approve the agreement unless the court finds that the communication between the adopted child, the adoptive parents, and a birth parent is in the child's best interests. The court may consider the wishes of a child who is at least 12 years old.

The court retains jurisdiction after the decree of adoption is entered to hear motions brought to enforce or modify an order entered pursuant to this section. Before filing a motion, the party seeking to enforce or modify an order shall make a good faith attempt to mediate the dispute. The court shall not enforce or modify an order unless the party filing the motion has made a good faith attempt to mediate the dispute.
Are agreements legally enforceable?
Citation: Rev. Stat. Ann. § 8-116.01
An agreement is not enforceable unless the agreement is in writing and is approved by the court.

An agreement entered into pursuant to this section is enforceable even if it does not disclose the identity of the parties to the agreement.

Failure to comply with an agreement is not grounds for setting aside an adoption decree or for revocation of a written consent to an adoption or relinquishment of parental rights.
How may an agreement be terminated or modified?
Citation: Rev. Stat. Ann. § 8-116.01
The court may order a modification of an agreement if it finds that the modification is necessary to serve the best interests of the adopted child and one of the following is true:

  • The modification is agreed to by the adoptive parents.
  • Exceptional circumstances have arisen since the agreement was approved that justify modification of the agreement.

The court may consider the wishes of a child who is at least age 12 in determining whether to order a modification.

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Regulation of Private Domestic Adoption Expenses

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Birth Parent Expenses Allowed
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-114(A)-(B)

The court may approve any monies paid to a parent of a child placed for adoption or another person for the benefit of the parent or adopted child for reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in connection with the adoption. These expenses may include costs for medical and hospital care and examinations for the mother and child, counseling fees, legal fees, agency fees, living expenses, and any other costs the court finds reasonable and necessary.

A person who wishes to pay the living expenses of a birth parent that exceed $1,000 shall file a motion with the court to permit that payment. A maximum of $1,000 may be advanced for birth parent living expenses without a motion.

In determining what living expenses are reasonable and necessary, the court shall consider, but not be limited to, the following factors:

  • The current standard of living of the birth parent
  • The standard of living necessary to preserve the health and welfare of the birth parent and the unborn child
  • The existence of alternative financial resources for the birth parent

Birth Parent Expenses Not Allowed
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-114(G)

Expenses that the court finds to be unauthorized or unreasonable are not allowed.
Allowable Payments for Arranging Adoption
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-114(D)

An attorney may be paid for services in connection with an adoption but only in amounts that the court approves as reasonable and necessary.
Allowable Payments for Relinquishing Child
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-114(C)

Except as provided, a person shall not be directly or indirectly compensated for giving or obtaining consent to place a child for adoption.
Allowable Fees Charged by Department/Agency
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-133

The Department of Economic Security may charge fees for studying and certifying adoption applicants and for providing placement supervision services to cover the costs of providing these services.

If an investigation is conducted by an officer of the court, the court may charge a reasonable fee. The court may waive, reduce, or defer this fee if the fee would cause a hardship.
Accounting of Expenses Required by Court
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-114(E), (F), (H)

No fewer than 10 days before an adoption petition is heard, the prospective adoptive parent shall file with the court a verified accounting of all fees, payments, disbursements, or commitments of anything of value made or agreed to be made by the prospective adoptive parent in connection with the adoption. The accounting shall include all living expenses and be accompanied by an affidavit that is signed by the birth mother, either before or after the birth of the child, that verifies that she has been given written notice; she understands that the payment of these expenses does not obligate her to place her child for adoption; and she may give a valid consent to the adoption only after the child's birth without regard to any cost or expense paid by any person in connection with the adoption. This subsection does apply to an agency placement adoption or to a direct placement adoption made through an agency.

The court shall allow, disallow, or allow in part fees, payments, disbursements, and commitments as shown in the accounting. All adoption cases shall be reviewed by the juvenile court for reasonableness and necessity of expenses.

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Rights of Unmarried Fathers, The

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Legal Definition of 'Father'
Rev. Stat. § 25-814
A man is presumed to be the father of a child if:

  • He and the mother of the child were married at any time in the 10 months immediately preceding the birth or the child is born within 10 months after the marriage is terminated by death, annulment, declaration of invalidity or dissolution of marriage, or after the court enters a decree of legal separation.
  • Genetic testing affirms at least a 95 percent probability of paternity.
  • A birth certificate is signed by the mother and father of a child born out of wedlock.
  • A notarized or witnessed statement is signed by both parents acknowledging paternity or separate substantially similar notarized or witnessed statements are signed by both parents acknowledging paternity.

Paternity Registry
Rev. Stat. § 8-106.01(A)-(B)
A person who is seeking paternity, who wants to receive notice of adoption proceedings, and who is the father or claims to be the father of a child shall file notice of a claim of paternity and of his willingness and intent to support the child to the best of his ability with the State Registrar of Vital Statistics in the Department of Health Services. The Department of Health Services shall provide forms for the purpose of filing the notice of a claim of paternity. Forms shall be made available in the Department of Health Services, the office of the clerk of the Board of Supervisors in each county, every hospital, every licensed child-placing agency, the Department of Economic Security, sheriff's offices, jails, prisons, State Department of Corrections facilities, and Department of Juvenile Corrections Facilities.

The Department of Health Services shall maintain a confidential registry for this purpose.
Alternate Means to Establish Paternity
Rev. Stat. § 25-812
This State or the parent of a child born out of wedlock may establish the paternity of a child by filing one of the following with the clerk of the superior court, the Department of Economic Security, or the Department of Health Services:

  • A notarized or witnessed statement that contains the Social Security numbers of both parents and that is signed by both parents acknowledging paternity or two separate substantially similar notarized or witnessed statements acknowledging paternity
  • An agreement by the parents to be bound by the results of genetic testing, including any genetic test previously accepted by a court of competent jurisdiction, or any combination of genetic testing agreed to by the parties, and an affidavit from a certified laboratory that the tested father has not been excluded

On filing a document required above, the court shall issue an order establishing paternity, which may amend the name of the child or children, if requested by the parents. The clerk shall transmit a copy of the order to the Department of Health Services and the Department of Economic Security.

A voluntary acknowledgment of paternity may be filed with the Department of Economic Security, which shall provide a copy to the Department of Health Services. A voluntary acknowledgment of paternity made pursuant to this section is a determination of paternity and has the same force and effect as a superior court judgment.
Required Information
Rev. Stat. § 8-106.01(B)
The notice of a claim of paternity may be filed before the birth of the child but shall be filed within 30 days after the birth of the child. The notice of a claim of paternity shall be signed by the putative father and shall include his name and address, the name and last known address of the birth mother, and either the birth date of the child or the probable month and year of the expected birth of the child. The putative father who files a notice of a claim of paternity under this section shall notify the Registrar of Vital Statistics of any change of his address.
Revocation of Claim to Paternity
Rev. Stat. § 25-812
The mother or the father may rescind the acknowledgment of paternity within the earlier of:

  • Sixty days after the last signature is affixed to the notarized acknowledgment of paternity that is filed with the Department of Economic Security, the Department of Health Services, or the court
  • The date of a proceeding relating to the child, including a child support proceeding in which the mother or father is a party

A rescission must be in writing, and a copy of each rescission of paternity shall be filed with the Department of Economic Security. The Department of Economic Security shall mail a copy of the rescission of paternity to the other parent and to the Department of Health Services.

The mother, father, or child may challenge a voluntary acknowledgment of paternity established in this State at any time after the 60-day period only on the basis of fraud, duress, or material mistake of fact, with the burden of proof on the challenger and under which the legal responsibilities, including child support obligations of any signatory arising from the acknowledgment, shall not be suspended during the challenge except for good cause shown. The court shall order the mother, her child or children, and the alleged father to submit to genetic testing. If the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the genetic tests demonstrate that the established father is not the biological father of the child, the court shall vacate the determination of paternity and terminate the obligation of that party to pay ongoing child support.
Access to Information
Rev. Stat. § 8-106.01(B)
The department shall only respond to written inquiries of the confidential registry that are received from the court, the division, a licensed adoption agency, or a licensed attorney participating or assisting in a direct placement adoption.

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State Recognition of Intercountry Adoptions Finalized Abroad

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Effect and Recognition of a Foreign Adoption Decree
This issue is not addressed in the statutes reviewed.
Readoption After an Intercountry Adoption
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 36-338(C)
Before the State Registrar creates and registers a certificate of foreign birth for a parent of an adopted child who has been issued an IR-3 visa and who has completed a readoption process in a court in this State, the parent must provide either of the following:

  • An original State of Arizona certificate of adoption
  • A certified court order of adoption issued by a court in this State and either a birth certificate from the country of the adoptee's birth or any other written documentation that establishes the date and place of the adoptee's birth that has been translated into English

Application for a U.S. Birth Certificate
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 36-338(A),(B),(D)-(F)
The State Registrar shall create a certificate of foreign birth for an adoptee who shows that he or she:
  • Was born in a foreign country
  • Is not a U.S. citizen
  • Has gone through a completed adoption process in a foreign country before coming to the United States
  • Has an IR-3 stamped passport

Before the State Registrar creates a certificate of foreign birth, a State court, an adoptive parent, or an adult adoptee must submit the following:

  • An adoption decree or other official document finalizing the adoption from the country of the adoptee's birth that has been translated into English
  • A copy of the passport page showing the IR-3 stamp

If the adoptee does not have an IR-3 stamped passport, before the State Registrar creates a certificate, an adoptive parent or an adult adoptee must submit either:

  • An original State of Arizona certificate of adoption
  • A certified court order of adoption issued by a court in this State and either a birth certificate from the country of the adoptee's birth or any other written documentation that establishes the date and place of the adoptee's birth that has been translated into English
  • If the person was not adopted in this State, a court order issued in this State that recognizes the adoption pursuant to § 36-336

The State Registrar shall not create a State of Arizona certificate of foreign birth for an adoptee who was born in a foreign country and who was a U.S. citizen at the time of birth. The State Registrar shall inform the adoptive parents or the adult adoptee that a birth certificate may be obtained through the U.S. Department of State.

A State of Arizona certificate of foreign birth for an adoptee must show the country of birth and state that the certificate is not evidence of U.S. citizenship for the person for whom it is issued.

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Use of Advertising and Facilitators in Adoptive Placements

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Use of Advertisement
This issue is not addressed in the statutes reviewed.

Use of Intermediaries/Facilitators
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-130; 8-114; 8-134
Except as provided below, a person shall not do any of the following unless the person is employed or engaged by and acting on behalf of a licensed adoption agency:

  • Solicit or accept employment or engagement, for compensation, by or on behalf of a parent or guardian for assistance in the placement of a child for adoption
  • Solicit or accept employment or engagement, for compensation, by or on behalf of any person to locate or obtain a child for adoption

An attorney licensed to practice law in this State may assist and participate in direct placement adoptions and may receive compensation to the extent the court finds reasonable if the person granting consent to the adoption has chosen a specific adopting parent without prior involvement of the attorney or if the choice is made only from among persons currently certified by the court as acceptable to adopt children.

Before a petition to adopt is granted, an attorney participating or assisting in the direct placement or adoption shall file an affidavit stating that there has been compliance with the above requirements.

An attorney may be paid for the attorney's services in connection with the adoption only the amount the court approves as being reasonable and necessary.

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Who May Adopt, Be Adopted, or Place a Child for Adoption

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Who May Adopt
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-103

Any adult resident of the State, whether married, unmarried, or legally separated, is eligible to adopt. A husband and wife may jointly adopt.

The division or adoption agency shall place a child in an adoptive home that best meets the safety, social, emotional, physical and mental health needs of the child. Other relevant factors for consideration, in no order of preference, shall include:

  • The marital status, and length and stability of the marital relationship of the prospective adoptive parents
  • Placement with the child's siblings
  • Established relationships between the child and the prospective adoptive family, including placement with a grandparent or another member of the child's extended family including a person or foster parent who has a significant relationship with the child
  • The prospective adoptive family's ability to meet the child's safety, social, emotional, physical and mental health needs and the ability to financially provide for the child
  • The wishes of the child who is age 12 or older
  • The wishes of the child's birth parents unless the rights of the parent have been terminated or the court has established a case plan of severance and adoption
  • The availability of relatives, the child's current or former foster parents, or other significant persons to provide support to the prospective adoptive family and child

If all relevant factors are equal and the choice is between a married man and woman certified to adopt and a single adult certified to adopt, placement preference shall be with a married man and woman.
Who May Be Adopted
Citation: Rev. Stat. § 8-102

The following persons may be adopted:

  • A child
  • A foreign-born person age 21 or less who is not an illegal alien

A person to be adopted must be present within the State at the time the petition is filed.
Who May Place a Child for Adoption
Citation: Rev. Stat. §§ 8-106; 8-130; 8-101

A child may be placed as follows:

  • The child's birth or adoptive parent may consent to a direct placement or an agency placement.
  • A licensed child-placing agency or the Department of Economic Security may handle a direct placement or an agency placement.
  • A State-licensed attorney may handle direct placements.

 

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