Thursday, July 17, 2014

Endnotes

 

1 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Office of Applied Studies (OAS). (2009, April). Children living with substance-dependent or substance-abusing parents: 2002–2007. The NSDUH Report [On-line]. Available: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k9/SAparents/SAparents.htm. back

2 DeBellis, M. D., Broussard, E. R., Herring, D. J., Wexler, S., Moritz, G., & Benitez, J. G. (2001). Psychiatric co-morbidity in caregivers and children involved in maltreatment: A pilot research study with policy implications. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25(7), 923–944; Dube, S. R., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Croft, J. B., Edwards, V. J., & Giles, W. H. (2001). Growing up with parental alcohol abuse: Exposure to childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25(12), 1627–1640; Chaffin, M., Kelleher, K., & Hollenberg, J. (1996). Onset of physical abuse and neglect: Psychiatric, substance abuse, and social risk factors from prospective community data. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20(3), 191–203. back

3 Kelleher, K., Chaffin, M., Hollenberg, J., & Fischer, E. (1994). Alcohol and drug disorders among physically abusive and neglectful parents in a community-based sample. American Journal of Public Health, 84(10), 1586–1590. back

4 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (ACF). (2008). Child maltreatment 2006 [On-line]. Available: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/resource/child-maltreatment-2006. back

5 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ACF. (1999). Blending perspectives and building common ground. A report to Congress on substance abuse and child protection [On-line]. Available: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/subabuse99/subabuse.htm. back

6 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ACF. (1999); Hans, S. (1995). Diagnosis in etiologic and epidemiologic studies. In C. Jones & M. De La Rosa (Eds.), Methodological issues: Etiology and consequences of drug abuse among women. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA); Tarter, R., Blackson, T., Martin, C., Loeber, R., & Moss, H. (1993). Characteristics and correlates of child discipline practices in substance abuse and normal families. American Journal on Addictions, 2(1), 18–25; Kumpfer, K. L., & Bayes, J. (1995). Child abuse and drugs. In J. H. Jaffe (Ed.), The encyclopedia of drugs and alcohol (Vol. 1, pp. 217–222). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. back

7 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ACF. (1999). back

8 Young, N. K., & Gardner, S. L. (2002). Navigating the pathways: Lessons and promising practices in linking alcohol and drug services with child welfare. Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) 27. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. back

9 American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th Ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: Author. back

10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. (2008). Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings [On-line]. Available: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k7nsduh/2k7Results.cfm#TOC. back

11 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. (2008); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2008). Alcohol and public health [On-line]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/index.htm; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, & U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2005). Dietary guidelines for Americans 2005 [On-line]. Available: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/document/html/chapter9.htm. back

12 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. (1999a). Drug abuse and addiction research: 25 years of discovery to advance the health of the public [On-line]. Available: http://www.drugabuse.gov/STRC/STRCindex.html; Leshner, A. I. (2001). Addiction is a brain disease. Issues in Science and Technology Online [On-line]. Available: http://www.nap.edu/issues/17.3/leshner.htmexternal link. back

13 Straussner, S. L. A., & Attia, P. R. (2002). Women's addiction treatment through a historical lens. In S. L. A. Straussner & S. Brown (Eds.), The handbook of addiction treatment for women (pp. 3–25). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; Musto, D. F. (1997). Historical perspectives. In J. H. Lowinson, P. Ruiz, R. B. Millman, & J. G. Langrod (Eds.), Substance abuse: A comprehensive textbook (pp. 1–10). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins. back

14 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH, NIDA. (2008). Drugs, brains, and behavior: The science of addiction [On-line]. Available: http://www.drugabuse.gov/Scienceofaddiction/. back

15 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH, NIDA. (2005a). Addiction is a chronic disease [On-line]. Available: http://www.nida.nih.gov/about/welcome/aboutdrugabuse/chronicdisease; World Health Organization. (2004). Neuroscience of psychoactive substance use and dependence: Summary [On-line]. Available: http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/en/Neuroscience_E.pdfexternal link; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH, NIDA. (2008). back

16 Anthenelli, R. M., & Schuckit, M. A. (1997). Genetics. In J. H. Lowinson, P. Ruiz, R. B. Millman, & J. G. Langrod (Eds.), Substance abuse: A comprehensive textbook (pp. 41–51). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins. back

17 World Health Organization. (2004); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. (1999b). Mental health: A report of the surgeon general [On-line]. Available: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/home.html; Anthenelli, R. M., & Schuckit, M. A. (1997). back

18 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH, NIDA. (2008). back

19 Alcoholics Anonymous. (1972). A brief guide to Alcoholics Anonymous [On-line]. Available: http://www.aa.org/en_pdfs/p-42_abriefguidetoaa.pdfexternal link; Alcoholics Anonymous. (2001). The big book [On-line]. Available: http://www.aa.org/bigbookonline/external link. back

20 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH, NIDA. (2005b) Principles of drug addiction treatment: A research based guide [On-line]. Available: www.nida.nih.gov/PODAT/PODATindex.html; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH, NIDA. (n.d.) The brain and addiction [On-line]. Available: http://teens.drugabuse.gov/drnida/drnida_brain2.asp#voluntary. back

21 Semidei, J., Radel, L., & Nolan, C. (2001). Substance abuse and child welfare: Clear linkages and promising responses. Child Welfare, 80(2), 69–128. back

22 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. (2008). back

23 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. (2008). back

24 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. (1999b). back

25 Wright, S. (2000). Women's use of drugs: Gender-specific factors. In H. Klee, M. Jackson, & S. Lewis (Eds.), Drug use and motherhood (pp. 15–31). New York, NY: Routledge. back

26 Pagliaro, A. M., & Pagliaro, L. (2000). Substance use among women: A reference and resource guide. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel. back

27 Daly, J. E., & Pelowski, S. (2000). Predictors of dropout among men who batter: A review of studies with implications for research and practice. Violence and Victims, 15(2), 137–160; Barrerra, M., Palmer, S., Brown, R., & Kalaher, S. (1994). Characteristics of court involved men and non-court involved men who abuse their wives. Journal of Family Violence, 9(4), 333–345; Gelles, R. (1993). Alcohol and other drugs are associated with violence—They are not its causes. In R. Gelles & D. Loseke (Eds.), Current controversies in family violence (pp. 182–196). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. back

28 Bragg, H. L. . Child protection in families experiencing domestic violence [On-line]. Available: http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/domesticviolence/domesticviolence.pdf. back

29 Cunradi, C. B., Caetano, R., & Schafer, J. (2002). Alcohol-related problems, drug use, and male partner violence severity. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26(4), 493–500; Brickley, M. R., & Shephard, J. P. (1995). The relationship between alcohol intoxication, injury severity and Glasgow coma scores in assault patients. Injury, 26(5), 311–314; Shephard, J. P., & Brickley, M. R. (1996). The relationship between alcohol intoxication, stressors and injury in urban violence. British Journal of Criminology, 36(4), 546–566. back

30 Najavits, L. M. (2001). Seeking safety: A treatment manual for PTSD and substance abuse. New York, NY: Guilford Press. back

31 Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52(12), 1048–1060. back

32 Resnick, H. S., Kilpatrick, D. G., Dansky, B. S., Saunders, B. E., & Best, C. L. (1993). Prevalence of civilian trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a representative sample of women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(6), 984–991. back

33 Smyth, N. (1998). Exploring the nature of the relationship between poverty and substance abuse: Knowns and unknowns. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 1(1), 67–82. back

34 Drake, B., & Pandy, S. (1996). Understanding the relationship between neighborhood poverty and specific types of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20(11), 1003–1018; Sedlak, A. J., & Broadhurst, D. D. (1996). Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect; Boney-McCoy, S., & Finkelhor, D. (1995). Prior victimization: A risk factor for child sexual abuse and for PTSD-related symptomatology among sexually abused youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(12), 1401–1421; Pelton, L. H., & Milner, J. S. (1994). Is poverty a key contributor to child maltreatment? In E. Gambrill & T. J. Stein (Eds.), Controversial issues in child welfare (pp. 16–28). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon; Coulton, C., Korbin, J., Su, M., & Chow, J. (1995). Community level factors and child maltreatment rates. Child Development, 66(5), 1262–1276; Jones, L. (1990). Unemployment and child abuse. Families in Society, (71)10, 579–587. back

35 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. Homelessness: Provision of mental health and substance abuse services [On-line]. Available: http://www.mentalhealth.org/publications/allpubs/homelessnessexternal link; The United States Conference of Mayors. (2006). Hunger, homelessness still a challenge in America according to Mayors/Sodexho [Online]. Available: http://www.usmayors.org/uscm/us_mayor_newspaper/documents/01_16_06/hunger.aspexternal link. back

36 Columbia University, National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse. (1998). Behind bars: Substance abuse and America's prison population [On-line]. Available: http://www.casacolumbia.org/pdshopprov/files/5745.pdf. back

37 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA, OAS. (2005). Illicit drug use among persons arrested for serious crimes [On-line]. Available: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k5/arrests/arrests.cfm. back

38 Abram, K. M., & Teplin, L. A. (1991). Co-occurring disorders among mentally ill jail detainees. American Psychologist, 46(10), 1036–1045. back

39 Beck, A. J., Karberg, J. C., & Harrison, P. M. (2002). Prison and jail inmates at midyear 2001. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin [On-line]. Available: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/pjim01.pdf; Sabol, W. J., Minton, T. D., & Harrison, P. M. (2007). Prison and jail inmates at midyear 2006. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin [On-line]. Available: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/pjim06.pdf. back

40 Greenfield, L. A., & Snell, T. L. (2000). Women offenders [On-line]. Available: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/wo.pdf; Snell, T. L. (1994). Women in prison [On-line]. Available: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/wopris.pdf. back

41 Snell, T. L. (1994). back

42 Otero, C., Boles, S., Young, N. K., & Dennis, K. (2004). Methamphetamine: Addiction, treatment, outcomes and implications. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. back

43 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. (2008). back

44 U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.). Methamphetamine [On-line]. Available: http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/meth.html#3. back

45 Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2006). Drug Endangered Children (DEC) [On-line]. Available: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/enforce/dr_endangered_child.html. back

46 Otero, C., et al. (2004). back

47 National Association of Counties. (2005). The meth epidemic in America: Two surveys of U.S. counties: The criminal effect of meth on communities & the impact of meth on children [On-line]. Available: http://www.naco.orgexternal link. back

48 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA, OAS. (2009). back

49 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ACF. (1999). back

50 Zuckerman, B. (1994). Effects on parents and children. In D. Besharov (Ed.), When drug addicts have children. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America. back

51 Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 42 U.S.C. 5106g, §Sec.111-2. back

52 Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 42 U.S.C. 5106g, §Sec.111-2. back

53 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. (2008). back

54 Landdeck-Sisco, J. (1997). Children with prenatal drug and/or alcohol exposure [On-line]. Available: http://www.archrespite.org/archfs49.htm. back

55 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. (2007). Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) 1995–2005: National admissions to substance abuse treatment services [On-line]. Available: http://wwwdasis.samhsa.gov/teds05/tedsad2k5web.pdf. back

56 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. (2002). Pregnant women in substance abuse treatment. The DASIS report [On-line]. Available: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/pregTX/pregTX.htm. back

57 Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2006). Prenatal drug use as child abuse [On-line]. Available: www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/drugexposed.pdf (PDF - 324 KB). back

58 University of California-Santa Barbara, School of Sociology. (n.d.). Effects of drugs taken during pregnancy [On-line]. Available: http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/sexinfo/?article=pregnancy&refid=003. back

59 National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. (2004). Frequently asked questions [On-line]. Available: http://www.nofas.org/faqs.aspx?id=9external link. back

60 McCreight, B. (1997). Recognizing and managing children with fetal alcohol syndrome/fetal alcohol effects: A guidebook (pp. 9–15). Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America. back

61 Phibbs, C. S., Bateman, D. A., & Schwartz, R. M. (1991). The neonatal costs of maternal cocaine use. Journal of the American Medical Association, 266(11), 1521–1526; Zuckerman, B., Frank, D. A., Hingson, R., Amaro, H., & Levenson, S. M. (1989). Effects of maternal marijuana and cocaine use on fetal growth. New England Journal of Medicine, 320(14), 762–768; Canadian Health Network, Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. (2004). What are the effects of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy? [On-line]. Available: http://www.canadian-health-network.caexternal link. back

62 Noland, J. S., Singer, L. T., & Arendt, R. E. (2003). Executive functioning in preschool-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 27(4), 647–656. back

63 Vogel, A. (1997). Neurodevelopment: Cocaine wreaks subtle damage on developing brains. Science, 278(5335), 38–39. back

64 Otero, C., et al. (2004). back

65 Irwin, K. (1995). Ideology, pregnancy, and drugs: Differences between crack-cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine users. Contemporary Drug Problems, 22(4), 613-638. back

66 Join Together Online. (2005). Meth science not stigma: Open letter to the media [On-line]. Available: http://www.jointogether.orgexternal link. back

67 Finfgeld, D. (2001). Emergent drug abuse resolution models and their implications for childbearing and childrearing women. Health Care for Women International, 22(8), 723–733. back

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70 Shonkoff, J., & Phillips, D. (Eds.). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; Kagan, J. (1999). The role of parents in children's psychological development. Pediatrics, 104(1), 164–167. back

71 Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., & Spark, G. M. (1973). Invisible loyalties: Reciprocity in intergenerational family therapy. New York, NY: Harper & Row. back

72 Kilpatrick, D., Acierno, R., Saunders, B., Resnick, H., & Best, C. (2000). Risk factors for adolescent substance abuse and dependence: Data from a national sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 19–30. back

73 National Research Council, Panel on Research on Child Abuse and Neglect. (1993). Understanding child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; Dembo, R., Dertke, M., La Voie, L., Borders, S., Washburn, M., & Schmeidler, J. (1987). Physical abuse, sexual victimization and illicit drug use: A structural analysis among high-risk adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 10(1), 13–34. back

74 National Research Council, Panel on Research on Child Abuse and Neglect. (1993). back

75 McCauley, J., Kern, D. E., Kolodner, K., Dill, L., Schroeder, A. F., DeChant, H. K., et al. (1997). Clinical characteristics of women with a history of childhood abuse. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277(17), 1362–1368. back

76 Stein, J. A., Leslie, M. B., & Nyamathi, A. (2002). Relative contributions of parent substance use and childhood maltreatment to chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems among homeless women: Mediating roles of self-esteem and abuse in adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 26(10), 1011–1027. back

77 Breshears, E. M., Yeh, S., & Young, N. K. (2004). Understanding substance abuse and facilitating recovery: A guide for child welfare workers [On-line]. Available: http://www.ncsacw.samhsa.gov/files/508/UnderstandingSAGuideDW.htm. back

78 Nakashian, M., & Moore, E. A. (2001). Identifying substance abuse among TANF eligible families. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. back

79 Illinois State University, School of Social Work. (2001). Signs of client methamphetamine use and caseworker safety procedures [On-line]. Available: http://www.drugfreeinfo.org/PDFs/strengthensupervision.pdfexternal link. back

80 Society for Public Health Education, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, & The American College of Medical Toxicology. (2007). Helping communities combat clandestine methamphetamine laboratories [On-line]. Available: http://www.sophe.org/upload/Meth%20Toolkit_ final_997254035_3242008142719.pdf. back

81 Society for Public Health Education, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, & The American College of Medical Toxicology. (2007). back

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92 Green, B. G., Rockhill, A. M., & Furrer, C. J. (2007). Does substance abuse treatment make a difference for child welfare case outcomes? A statewide longitudinal analysis. Children and Youth Services Review, 29(4), 460–473. back

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99 Sorensen, J. L., & Copeland, A. L. (2000). Drug abuse treatment as an HIV prevention strategy: A review. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 59(1), 17–31. back

100 Palla, S., Kakuska, C., Myles, B., & Hercik, J. (2003). Achieving common goals: Final report [Online]. Available: http://peerta.acf.hhs.gov/pdf/common_goals.pdf. back

101 Child Welfare League of America. (2002). CWLA testimony submitted to the Senate Finance Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy for the hearing on issues in TANF reauthorization: Helping hard-to-employ families [On-line]. Available: http://www.cwla.org/advocacy/tanf020425.htmexternal link. back

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104 Kirby, G., Pavetti, L., Kauff, J., & Tapogna, J. (1999). Integrating alcohol and drug treatment into a work-oriented welfare program: Lessons from Oregon [On-line]. Available: http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/PDFs/oregon.pdfexternal link; Rivera, J. A. (2003). Defining and operationalizing work in the substance abuse treatment setting. Brooklyn, NY: Rivera, Sierra & Company; Palla, S., et al. (2003). back

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108 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. (2001). HIV/AIDS surveillance report [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats/hasr1302.htm. back

109 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA, OAS. (2003). Admissions of persons with co-occurring disorders: 2000. The DASIS report [Online]. Available: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k3/dualTX/dualTX.htm. back

110 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH, NIDA. (2005c). NIDA InfoFacts: Treatment methods for women [On-line]. Available: http://www.drugabuse.gov/Infofacts/TreatWomen.html. back

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113 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA. (2008). back

114 DePanfilis, D., & Salus, M. K. Child protective services: A guide for caseworkers [On-line]. Available: http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/cps/cps.pdf. back

115 National Family Preservation Network. (2005). North Carolina Family Assessment Scale [On-line]. Available: http://www.nfpn.org/preservation/assessment_tool.php. back

116 Breshears, E. M., et al. (2004). back

117 North Carolina Division of Social Services, & The Family and Children's Resource Program. (2005). Crafting a safe, family-centered response to meth [Online]. Available: http://www.practicenotes.org/vol10_n2/familycentered.htmexternal link. back

118 Miller, W., & Rollnick, S. (1992). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people to change addictive behavior. New York, NY: Guilford Press. back

119 Breshears, E. M., et al. (2004). back

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